Abstract

We propose a multifocal noncontact setup to perform depth-sensitive fluorescence imaging on a two-layered epithelial tissue model. The combination of a microlens array and a tunable lens enables the depth of the multifocal plane to be conveniently adjusted without any mechanical movement of the imaging lens or the sample. This advantage is particularly desirable in the clinical setting. Results from the phantom study demonstrate that the setup can achieve depth-sensitive color imaging for fluorescence measurements, which is further confirmed by spectral measurements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013

2012

2011

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

1997

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amoh, Y.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andree, S.

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bigner, D.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bish, S. F.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bouvet, M.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. Chen, M. Martin, A. Wintenberg, R. Lenarduzzi, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, and T. Vo-Dinh, Opt. Express 15, 12583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen and Q. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Contini, D.

Cubeddu, R.

Edigeret, M. N.

Follen, M.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gersonde, I.

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grant, G.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Helfmann, J.

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Andres, J.

Hoffman, R. M.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, F. Y.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Illing, G.

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jelzow, A.

Jenkins, F.

F. Jenkins and H. White, in Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1957), Chap. 5.

Jiang, P.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenarduzzi, R.

Li, J. J.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. Q.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. C.

Liu, Q.

MacAulay, C.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R.

Martin, M.

Matchette, L. S.

Mazurenka, M.

Moossa, A. R.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mora, A. D.

Nichols, B.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nieves, J. L.

Ong, Y. H.

Overholt, B. F.

Panjehpour, M.

Pfefer, T. J.

Pifferi, A.

Rajaram, N.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Reble, C.

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J.

Ross, A. M.

Spinelli, L.

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ti, Y. L.

Tomita, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tosi, A.

Tsuchiya, H.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tunnell, J. W.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valero, E. M.

Vo-Dinh, T.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. Chen, M. Martin, A. Wintenberg, R. Lenarduzzi, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, and T. Vo-Dinh, Opt. Express 15, 12583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, H.

White, H.

F. Jenkins and H. White, in Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1957), Chap. 5.

Wilson, C.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wintenberg, A.

Xu, M.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

Zhang, Y.

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. G.

Appl. Opt.

Cancer Res.

K. Yamauchi, M. Yang, P. Jiang, N. Yamamoto, M. Xu, Y. Amoh, K. Tsuji, M. Bouvet, H. Tsuchiya, K. Tomita, A. R. Moossa, and R. M. Hoffman, Cancer Res. 65, 4246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Arifler, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, G. Grant, J. J. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Y. Hu, S. Q. Li, C. Wilson, K. Chen, D. Bigner, and T. Vo-Dinh, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 037004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen and Q. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Andree, C. Reble, J. Helfmann, I. Gersonde, and G. Illing, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 067009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 120505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Jenkins and H. White, in Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1957), Chap. 5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the multifocal noncontact imaging setup. Solid lines with arrows represent excitation light flow while green dotted lines represent emission light flow. Light propagation is illustrated for one microlens only in the region below the microlens array for clarity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Color images acquired at different focal depths. (b) Raw RGB values averaged for bright spots at a range of focal depths. The scale bar represents 400 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Percentage of R and G values as a function of focal depth.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fluorescence spectra for a range of focal depths, the legend shows the values of focal depths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Properties of Tissue Phantom [13]a

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