Abstract

In this Letter, plasmonic sectoral horn nanoantennas working at near-infrared wavelength (1550 nm) have been investigated. We demonstrate that, although there are certain differences between the plasmonic and classical radiofrequency (RF) sectoral horn antennas, the plasmonic horns still possess a number of attractive features, like their RF counterparts, such as tunable high directivities, simplicity in fabrication, and ease of coupling to waveguides. As a specific application, we further show how to exploit these findings to optimize an optical wireless nanolink using the proposed horn nanoantennas, and obtain a 60-fold increase in the received power compared with the situation of matched dipole nanoantennas.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Bharadwaj, R. Beams, and L. Novotny, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 136 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Photonics 6, 737 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. M. Solís, J. M. Taboada, F. Obelleiro, and L. Landesa, Opt. Express 21, 2369 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).
  12. L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 11, 5219 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 26802 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 261108 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Ramaccia, F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and A. Massaro, Opt. Lett. 36, 1743 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, Opt. Express 21, 1762 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley, 2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. D. R. Rhodes, Proc. IRE 36, 1101 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Veronis and S. Fan, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Photonics 6, 737 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, R. Beams, and L. Novotny, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 11, 5219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Ramaccia, F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and A. Massaro, Opt. Lett. 36, 1743 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 26802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

D. R. Rhodes, Proc. IRE 36, 1101 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 11, 5219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 11, 5219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

Balanis, C. A.

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley, 2005).

Beams, R.

P. Bharadwaj, R. Beams, and L. Novotny, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Bharadwaj, R. Beams, and L. Novotny, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bilotti, F.

Burr, G. W.

Chen, X. W.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

Duò, L.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eghlidi, H.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 26802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Feichtner, T.

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, M.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, V. S. S.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 26802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosjean, T.

Halas, N. J.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-S.

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Photonics 6, 737 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kukura, P.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Landesa, L.

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lettow, R.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

H. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 261108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massaro, A.

Mivelle, M.

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Bharadwaj, R. Beams, and L. Novotny, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).

Obelleiro, F.

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

H. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 261108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramaccia, D.

Renn, A.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, D. R.

D. R. Rhodes, Proc. IRE 36, 1101 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobhani, H.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solís, D. M.

Taboada, J. M.

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 26802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toscano, A.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 261108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A. A.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 11, 5219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Photonics 6, 737 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 261108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 261108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

P. Bharadwaj, R. Beams, and L. Novotny, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, Nano Lett. 9, 1897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 11, 5219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, Nat. Photonics 6, 737 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, and V. S. S. Götzinger, Nat. Photonics 5, 166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 26802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

D. R. Rhodes, Proc. IRE 36, 1101 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Science 332, 702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the plasmonic sectoral horn nanoantennas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 2D map of near-field electric intensity recorded in the XZ plane ( y = 25 nm ) of the horn nanoantenna with l = 1000 nm , θ = 26.6 ° , and t = 100 nm . (b) Corresponding directivity pattern (linear scale, similarly hereinafter) of the plasmonic sectoral horn. nanoantennas.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Directivity patterns of plasmonic sectoral horn nanoantennas with constant θ ( 26.6 ° ) and t ( 100 nm ) as a function of different lengths, including (a)  l = 100 nm , (b)  l = 500 nm , (c)  l = 1000 nm , and (d)  l = 1500 nm .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Directivity patterns of plasmonic sectoral horn nanoantennas with constant l ( 1000 nm ) and t ( 100 nm ) as a function of different flare angles, including (a)  θ = 7.7 ° , (b)  θ = 13.2 ° , (c)  θ = 30.3 ° , and (d)  θ = 38.1 ° .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Directivity patterns of plasmonic sectoral horn nanoantennas with constant l ( 1000 nm ) and θ ( 26.6 ° ) as a function of different widths, including (a)  t = 50 nm , (b)  t = 200 nm , (c)  t = 400 nm , and (d)  t = 600 nm .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

E-field distributions over the aperture of the horn nanoantennas (a) with different widths t (b)  t = 200 nm , and (c)  t = 600 nm .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) E-field intensity distribution recorded in the XZ plane ( y = 25 nm ) of the optimized horn nanoantenna ( l = 1000 nm , θ = 18.6 ° , and t = 320 nm ). (b) Directivity pattern of the optimized horn nanoantenna used in the optical wireless nanolink. (c) E-field distribution inside the OTL of the receiving terminal.

Equations (2)

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D ( θ , ϕ ) = 4 π P rad p ( θ , ϕ ) ,
P r P t = e t e r D t D r | p t p r | 2 ( λ 0 4 π n d ) 2 ,

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