Abstract

A one-dimensional fiber grating coupler is derived from a waveguide with random etches using implementations of particle swarm and genetic algorithms. The resulting gratings yield a theoretical coupling efficiency of up to 1.1 dB and prompt clear design rules for the layout of highly efficient fiber grating couplers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, Opt. Express 21, 7868 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Covey and R. T. Chen, Opt. Express 21, 10886 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.
  7. J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, Swarm Intelligence (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2001).
  9. T. Weise, Global Optimization Algorithms—Theory and Application, WGOEM, self-published, 2009, http://www.it-weise.de

2013 (2)

2007 (1)

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Butschke, J.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Chen, R. T.

Covey, J.

Eberhart, R. C.

J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, Swarm Intelligence (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2001).

Kennedy, J.

J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, Swarm Intelligence (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2001).

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Letzkus, F.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Li, C.

Lo, G. Q.

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pomplun, J.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosa, M. F.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Schmidt, F.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, W.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Zaoui, W. S.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Zhang, H.

Zschiedrich, L.

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. Pomplun, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and F. Schmidt, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, Swarm Intelligence (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2001).

T. Weise, Global Optimization Algorithms—Theory and Application, WGOEM, self-published, 2009, http://www.it-weise.de

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Maximum out-coupled power as a function of waveguide height and epitaxial layer height maximized over grating periods ranging from 500 to 760 nm and etch depths from 0 nm to the available waveguide height at λ = 1.55 μm .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of randomly generated fiber grating coupler with groove widths g i , ridge widths r i , and etch depths e i of period i . Waveguide height and epitaxial layer height are fixed to 200 nm. Buried oxide height is 2 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coupling efficiency of the best found candidate solution so far as a function of optimization steps for the genetic algorithm (blue) and particle swarm algorithm (green).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Feature sizes of an optimized grating structure. Grating period one is nearest to the input waveguide. Blue, groove width; red, ridge width; green, etch depth.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Feature sizes of 10 linearized fiber grating couplers, optimized for 10° coupling at λ = 1.55 μm . Each grating design shows a coupling efficiency between 1.1 and 1.2 dB.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral response of a fiber grating coupler with linearized feature sizes. Filter curves of the grating (solid lines) and coupling efficiencies to a standard single-mode fiber at three different tilt angles (dashed lines).

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