Abstract

An infrared refractive index sensor based on plasmonic perfect absorbers for glucose concentration sensing is experimentally demonstrated. Utilizing substantial absorption contrast between a perfect absorber (98% at normal incidence) and a non-perfect absorber upon the refractive index change, a maximum value of figure of merit (FOM*) about 55 and a bulk wavelength sensitivity about 590nm/RIU are achieved. The demonstrated sensing platform provides great potential in improving the performance of plasmonic refractive index sensors and developing future surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

C. Wu and G. Shvets, Opt. Lett. 37, 308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 7165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Jun Cui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 154102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, ACS Nano 6, 7998 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang, Y.-R. Zhen, L. Fan, X. Zhu, and P. Nordlander, Phys. Rev. B 85, 245401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 11, 4366 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pu, C. Hu, M. Wang, C. Huang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, Opt. Express 19, 17413 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Becker, A. Trgler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Snnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 15, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, ACS Nano 6, 7998 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ahmet Ali, Y.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, B. K.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, ACS Nano 6, 7998 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. OHara, http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0343 .

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J. Becker, A. Trgler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Snnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cai, W.

Chang, S.-H.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

Y. Zeng, H.-T. Chen, and D. A. R. Dalvit, Opt. Express 21, 3540 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 7165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. OHara, http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0343 .

Chen, K.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, ACS Nano 6, 7998 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

L. Yongqian, S. Lei, S. Chen, Y. Chunmeng, D. Jinjun, and F. Yu, Sci. Rep. 3, 2865 (2013).

Chen, W.

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, AIP Adv. 3, 102118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chihhui, W.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chunmeng, Y.

L. Yongqian, S. Lei, S. Chen, Y. Chunmeng, D. Jinjun, and F. Yu, Sci. Rep. 3, 2865 (2013).

Dalvit, D. A. R.

de Silva, V. C.

Deng, H.

Drachev, V. P.

Dregely, D.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 11, 4366 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

Z. Fang, Y.-R. Zhen, L. Fan, X. Zhu, and P. Nordlander, Phys. Rev. B 85, 245401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Y.-R. Zhen, L. Fan, X. Zhu, and P. Nordlander, Phys. Rev. B 85, 245401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

Gao, J.

Gennady, S.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 11, 4366 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Jun Cui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 154102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Jun Cui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 154102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hatice, A.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

He, Y.

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirscher, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hohenester, U.

J. Becker, A. Trgler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Snnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hokmabadi, M. P.

Hu, C.

Huang, C.

Huang, Y.

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, AIP Adv. 3, 102118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jakab, A.

J. Becker, A. Trgler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Snnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, X.

Jinjun, D.

L. Yongqian, S. Lei, S. Chen, Y. Chunmeng, D. Jinjun, and F. Yu, Sci. Rep. 3, 2865 (2013).

John, J.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jun Cui, T.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Jun Cui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 154102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, S. M.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. OHara, http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0343 .

Kung, P.

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lei, S.

L. Yongqian, S. Lei, S. Chen, Y. Chunmeng, D. Jinjun, and F. Yu, Sci. Rep. 3, 2865 (2013).

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 11, 4366 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Mai, P.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 11, 4366 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sonnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milder, A.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neuner, B.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nihal, A.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

Z. Fang, Y.-R. Zhen, L. Fan, X. Zhu, and P. Nordlander, Phys. Rev. B 85, 245401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

OHara, J. F.

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. OHara, http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0343 .

Osgood, R. M.

Padilla, W. J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M.

Qiu, M.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rho, J.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ronen, A.

W. Chihhui, B. K. Alexander, A. Ronen, A. Nihal, Y. Ahmet Ali, A. Hatice, and S. Gennady, Nat. Mater. 11, 69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Savoy, S.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shchegolkov, D. Y.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. Jun Cui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 154102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu and G. Shvets, Opt. Lett. 37, 308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 11, 4366 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Alù, M. G. Silveirinha, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 75, 155410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
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Sci. Rep.

L. Yongqian, S. Lei, S. Chen, Y. Chunmeng, D. Jinjun, and F. Yu, Sci. Rep. 3, 2865 (2013).

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Other

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. OHara, http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0343 .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of one unit cell of the designed perfect absorber metamaterial and the incident light polarization configuration. (b) A SEM image of the fabricated perfect absorber metamaterial lattice (Top view). (Scale bar, 1 μm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FTIR measured (a) reflectance and (b) absorbance spectra by changing the adjacent dielectric medium from air (black solid) to water (red solid) at normal incidence. The corresponding numerical simulated (c) reflectance and (d) absorbance spectra in air (black dashed curve) and water (red dashed curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental and (b) simulated FOM * (red dashed curve) as a function of frequency. The black solid curve in each figure shows the reflectance spectrum measured in air.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured and (c) simulated reflectance spectra tuning for the sample by changing the surrounding medium from water to 45% aqueous glucose solution. Linear fit (red curves) of the (b) measured and (d) simulated resonance wavelengths (black squares) as a function of refractive index of the surrounding medium. The slope of the fitting curve in each figure depicts the bulk wavelength sensitivities.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Magnetic field (contour plot, | H⃗ | ) and current density (arrows, J⃗ ) distributions on the y - z cutting plane depicted in Fig. 1(a). (b) The electric field (contour plot, | E⃗ | ) and polarization (arrows, P⃗ ) distributions in the cutting plane. The simulated absorbance bands as functions of frequencies and incident angles for TE (c) and TM (d) polarization.

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