Abstract

We present a side-by-side comparison of the nonlinear behavior of four passive AlGaAs ridge waveguides where the bandgap energy of the core layers ranges from 1.60 to 1.79 eV. By engineering the bandgap to suppress two-photon absorption, minimizing the linear loss, and minimizing the mode area, we achieve efficient wavelength conversion in the C-band via partially degenerate four-wave mixing with a continuous-wave pump. The observed conversion efficiency [Idler(OUT)/Signal(IN)=6.8dB] is among the highest reported in passive semiconductor or glass waveguides.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Inoue and H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, and J. S. Aitchison, Opt. Express 19, 12440 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2012).

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, M. C. Camasta, and M. Sorel, Opt. Lett. 35, 4093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Inoue and H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waarts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Kapon and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2012).

Aitchison, J. S.

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, and J. S. Aitchison, Opt. Express 19, 12440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, M. C. Camasta, and M. Sorel, Opt. Lett. 35, 4093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Al-hemyari, K.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, G. C.

Bhat, R.

E. Kapon and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Braun, R. P.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waarts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Camasta, M. C.

Choi, D.-Y.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaleva, K.

Eggleton, B. J.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Foster, A. C.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Handsryd, J.

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue and T. Mukai, Opt. Lett. 26, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue and H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

E. Kapon and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lacava, C.

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-H.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Mathlouthi, W.

Matres, J.

Minzioni, P.

Mukai, T.

Ng, W. C.

Oton, C. J.

Paniccia, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waarts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

Stegeman, G. I.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stryland, E. W. V.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

K. Inoue and H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waarts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. Y.

Westlund, M.

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C.-H. Lin, and H.-H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Kapon and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waarts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1205 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Handsryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Inoue and H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic, 2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Micrograph of a typical AlGaAs waveguide (prior to antireflection coating). (b) A representative cross-section, showing typical layer compositions and dimensions. The contours are the calculated TE optical mode for a core of width 1.2 μm and height 0.8 μm, and mole fraction x = 0.17 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sections and properties of the waveguides, labeled I to IV in order of ascending core-bandgap energy. The contours are the 5 through 20 dB levels of the calculated TE optical mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured and simulated inverse transmission versus peak input intensity for Waveguides I and II. Inset: Inverse transmission squared versus the square of peak input intensity for Waveguide II.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured output spectra (solid lines) for Waveguides I and II, offset for clarity. Labels on the left of each column indicate the average power launched into the waveguide. The dashed cyan lines are simulations of the spectra for Waveguide II, and cyan labels on the right indicate the simulated peak phase shift.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CW FWM efficiency versus P p 0 × ( L eff / A eff ) e ( α L / 2 ) . Symbols represent the measured efficiencies and the lines were calculated using Eq. (5). Inset: The output spectrum observed for the highest conversion efficiency.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( z , t ) z = α I ( z , t ) α 2 I 2 ( z , t ) α 3 I 3 ( z , t ) ,
1 T = e α L ( 1 + α 2 L eff I 0 ) 1 2 ( α 2 L eff I 0 ) 1 2 ln [ ( 1 + α 2 L eff I 0 ) 1 2 + ( α 2 L eff I 0 ) 1 2 ] .
T = 1 2 t 0 e α L sech 2 ( t t 0 ) d t [ 1 + α 3 α I 0 2 sech 4 ( t t 0 ) ( 1 e 2 α L ) ] 1 2 .
d P p d z = α P p α 2 A eff ( P p + 2 P s + 2 P i ) P p 4 ω n 2 c A eff P p P s P i sin θ 2 α 2 A eff P p P s P i cos θ ,
d P s d z = α P s α 2 A eff ( 2 P p + P s + 2 P i ) P s + 2 ω n 2 c A eff P p P s P i sin θ α 2 A eff P p P s P i cos θ ,
d P i d z = α P i α 2 A eff ( 2 P p + 2 P s + P i ) P i + 2 ω n 2 c A eff P p P s P i sin θ α 2 A eff P p P s P i cos θ ,
d θ d z = ( k s + k i 2 k p ) + ω n 2 c A eff ( 2 P p P s P i ) + ω n 2 c A eff ( P p P s P i + P p P i P s 4 P s P i ) cos θ + α 2 A eff ( P p P s P i + P p P i P s 4 P s P i ) sin θ ,
P i ( L ) P s ( 0 ) = e α L ( | γ | P p 0 L eff ) 2 ,

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