Abstract

Imperfections in the multilayer stack deposited on a saw-tooth substrate are the main factor limiting the diffraction efficiency of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray multilayer-coated blazed gratings (MBGs). Since the multilayer perturbations occur in the vicinity of antiblazed facets of the substrates, reduction of the groove density of MBGs is expected to enlarge the area of unperturbed multilayer and result in higher diffraction efficiency. At the same time the grating should be optimized for higher-order operation in order to keep high dispersion and spectral resolution. In this work we show the validity of this approach and demonstrate significant enhancement of diffraction efficiency of MBGs using higher-order diffraction. A new record for diffraction efficiency of 52% in the second diffraction order was achieved for an optimized MBG with groove density of 2525lines/mm at the wavelength of 13.4 nm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

V. V. Medvedev, A. J. R. van den Boogaard, R. van der Meer, A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, V. M. Krivtsun, and F. Bijkerk, Opt. Express 21, 16964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, Appl. Surf. Sci. 284, 575 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2004

2002

P. P. Naulleau, W. C. Sweatt, and D. A. Tichenor, Opt. Commun. 214, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kotani and Sh. Shin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, Phys. Scr. 41, 418 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Kern, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bijkerk, F.

Cabrini, S.

Cambie, R.

Cruddace, R. G.

Dhuey, S. D.

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L. I.

Gullikson, E. M.

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, Appl. Surf. Sci. 284, 575 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, Opt. Lett. 37, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, R. Cambie, S. Cabrini, S. D. Dhuey, L. I. Goray, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, Opt. Express 19, 6320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

Hunter, W. R.

Kearney, P. A.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

W. Kern, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kierey, H.

Kotani, A.

A. Kotani and Sh. Shin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Krivtsun, V. M.

Krumrey, M.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

Louis, E.

Malek, C. Kh.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Medvedev, V. V.

Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, W. C. Sweatt, and D. A. Tichenor, Opt. Commun. 214, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, Phys. Scr. 41, 418 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

Shin, Sh.

A. Kotani and Sh. Shin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W. C.

P. P. Naulleau, W. C. Sweatt, and D. A. Tichenor, Opt. Commun. 214, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D. A.

P. P. Naulleau, W. C. Sweatt, and D. A. Tichenor, Opt. Commun. 214, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van den Boogaard, A. J. R.

van der Meer, R.

Voronov, D. L.

Warwick, T.

Yakshin, A. E.

Yashchuk, V. V.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

D. L. Voronov, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, Appl. Surf. Sci. 284, 575 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

W. Kern, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. P. Naulleau, W. C. Sweatt, and D. A. Tichenor, Opt. Commun. 214, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Scr.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, Phys. Scr. 41, 418 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

A. Kotani and Sh. Shin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) AFM images of a saw-tooth substrate after RCA SC-1 treatment and (b) the same after Mo/Si-40 deposition. The images were flattened by applying first-order polynomial flattening to each line of a scan. The height scale bar is 5 nm. (c) PSD spectra of the substrate before (black curve) and after (red curve) ML deposition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional TEM images of the (a)  2525 lines / mm second-order blazed grating coated with a Mo/Si-40 multilayer and (b)  5250 lines / mm first-order blazed grating coated with a Mo/Si-30 multilayer [7].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dependence of diffraction efficiency of the 2525 lines / mm second-order blazed grating and 5250 lines / mm first-order blazed grating (red and blue solid curves, respectively), and reflectance of Mo/Si-40 and Mo/Si-30 flat multilayers (red and blue dash curves, respectively). (b) Detector scans for the 2525 lines / mm and 5250 lines / mm gratings (red and blue curves, respectively).

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