Abstract

We investigate the use of a seven-cell hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber for transport of CW laser radiation from a single-mode, narrow-linewidth, high-power fiber laser amplifier. Over 90% of the amplifier output was coupled successfully and transmitted through the fiber in a near-Gaussian mode, with negligible backreflection into the source. 100 W of power was successfully transmitted continuously without damage and 160 W of power was transmitted briefly before the onset of thermal lensing in the coupling optics.

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References

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  1. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).
  2. A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 5035 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, in OFC/NFOEC (2008), paper OTuJ6.
  4. F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Lett. 35, 94 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, Opt. Express 19, 10180 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Stutzki, H. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Lett. 36, 4572 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Rothenberg, in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) (2009), paper OTuP3.
  9. D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).
  10. R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in CLEO/QELS (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.
  12. NKT Photonics, “HC-1060-02 hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1060  nm range applications,” fiber data sheet.
  13. T. Zhu, F. Xiao, L. Xu, M. Liu, M. Deng, and K. S. Chiang, Opt. Express 20, 24465 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. E. Wagner and W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2671 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Hu and J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Opt. 12, 72 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Lett. 35, 94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1973 (1)

1965 (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alharbi, M.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Andersen, T. V.

Beaudou, B.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Benabid, F.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in CLEO/QELS (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Bhagwat, A. R.

Bradley, T. D.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Calia, D. B.

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A.

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, in OFC/NFOEC (2008), paper OTuJ6.

Cheung, E. C.

F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Couny, F.

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in CLEO/QELS (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Debord, B.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Deng, M.

Di Teodoro, F.

F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Feng, Y.

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

Fourcade-Dutin, C.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Frith, G.

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, in OFC/NFOEC (2008), paper OTuJ6.

Gabler, T.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gaida, C.

Gerôme, F.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hackenberg, W.

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanf, S.

Hemmat, M. K.

F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holzlöhner, R.

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Leite, R. C. C.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, S.

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

Limpert, J.

Liu, M.

Mangan, B.

R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in CLEO/QELS (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Moore, R. S.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Morais, J.

F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Otto, H.

Porto, S. P. S.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

J. E. Rothenberg, in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) (2009), paper OTuP3.

Samson, B.

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, in OFC/NFOEC (2008), paper OTuJ6.

Schreiber, T.

Seise, E.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J. J.

Sokolov, A. V.

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in CLEO/QELS (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Stutzki, F.

Tankala, K.

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, in OFC/NFOEC (2008), paper OTuJ6.

Taylor, L.

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tünnermann, A.

Wagner, R. E.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

Whinnery, J. R.

C. Hu and J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Opt. 12, 72 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, C.

Xiao, F.

Xu, L.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

High Power Laser Sci. Eng. (1)

Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Debord, B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, and F. Benabid, High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 17 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Holzlöhner, B. Mangan, D. B. Calia, and W. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62724B (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Di Teodoro, M. K. Hemmat, J. Morais, and E. C. Cheung, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger (1)

D. B. Calia, Y. Feng, W. Hackenberg, R. Holzlöhner, L. Taylor, and S. Lewis, The Messenger 139, 12 (2010).

Other (4)

B. Samson, G. Frith, A. Carter, and K. Tankala, in OFC/NFOEC (2008), paper OTuJ6.

J. E. Rothenberg, in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) (2009), paper OTuP3.

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in CLEO/QELS (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

NKT Photonics, “HC-1060-02 hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1060  nm range applications,” fiber data sheet.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the power transport experiment. L1, 25 mm focal length aspheric lens used for collimation; L2, 11 mm focal length aspheric lens used for focusing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM image of the cleaved fiber facet. (b) Image of the transmitted beam at the output facet ( D 4 σ = 6.3 μm ). (c) Image of the reflected beam at the input facet (the scattered light is mainly from the thin ring of silica surrounding the core), reflectivity 0.2% or 0.0087 dB.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transient power transmission at different amplifier set points while using AR-coated coupling lenses. The decline in fiber transmission is attributed to thermal defocusing in the coupling optics. In two cases a steady state was reached, but thermal run-away occurred for the higher input power, leading to failure of the fiber mount.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements of transmitted versus incident power showing initial and final (steady state or prior to failure) values. Theoretical fits use defocusing parameters as described in the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission versus time at > 100 W power setting with the uncoated focusing lens in position.

Equations (3)

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η = η 0 1 + ( 2 π β P ) 2 ,
β = b l ( d n / d T ) π k c λ ( 1 + t c / 2 t ) ,
t c = w 2 ρ c p 4 k c ,

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