Abstract

It is widely believed that laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are independent of material crystal structures. This Letter reports an abnormal phenomenon of strong dependence of the anisotropic formation of periodic ripples on crystal orientation, when Si (100) is processed by a linearly polarized femtosecond laser (800 nm, 50 fs, 1 kHz). LIPSS formation sensitivity with a π/2 modulation is found along different crystal orientations with a quasi-cosinusoid function when the angle between the crystal orientation and polarization direction is changed from 0° to 180°. Our experiments indicate that it is much easier (or more difficult) to form ripple structures when the polarization direction is aligned with the lattice axis [011]/[011¯] (or [001]). The modulated nonlinear ionization rate along different crystal orientations, which arises from the direction dependence of the effective mass of the electron is proposed to interpret the unexpected anisotropic LIPSS formation phenomenon. Also, we demonstrate that the abnormal phenomenon can be applied to control the continuity of scanned ripple lines along different crystal orientations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, J. W. Yao, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, Opt. Lett. 37, 1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 21505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, Opt. Lett. 36, 229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, C. Oberer, and U. Heinzmann, Opt. Express 19, 2797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

2009

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yuan, V. Yost, M. Page, P. Stradins, D. Meier, and H. Branz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, H. K. Park, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, Proc. SPIE 7409, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, E. Spanakis, P. Tzanetakis, S. Anastasiadis, and C. Fotakis, Adv. Mater. 20, 4049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4970 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. Tagawa, M. Takada, A. Mori, H. Sawada, and K. Kawahara, Tribol. Lett. 24, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 28, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1934

C. Zener and H. H. Wills, Proc. R. Soc. A 145, 523 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Anastasiadis, S.

V. Zorba, E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, E. Spanakis, P. Tzanetakis, S. Anastasiadis, and C. Fotakis, Adv. Mater. 20, 4049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

Barberoglou, M.

V. Zorba, E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, E. Spanakis, P. Tzanetakis, S. Anastasiadis, and C. Fotakis, Adv. Mater. 20, 4049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Bonse, J.

Boukenter, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Branz, H.

H. Yuan, V. Yost, M. Page, P. Stradins, D. Meier, and H. Branz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Burke, K.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Castillejo, M.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 28, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T. H. R.

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4970 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dachraoui, H.

Dai, Q. F.

Davis, K. M.

Derrien, T. J. Y.

Dörr, D.

Drakakis, T. S.

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Epple, M.

Ernzerhof, M.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ezquerra, T. A.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farsari, M.

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Filippidis, G.

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

V. Zorba, E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, E. Spanakis, P. Tzanetakis, S. Anastasiadis, and C. Fotakis, Adv. Mater. 20, 4049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Georgiou, S.

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gertsvolf, M.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gizeli, E.

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, H. K. Park, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, Proc. SPIE 7409, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. N.

Harzic, R. L.

Haugen, H. K.

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4970 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

Hernandez, J. J.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 28, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Höhm, S.

Hu, J.

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huo, G.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Huot, N.

Hwang, D. J.

T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, H. K. Park, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, Proc. SPIE 7409, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itina, T. E.

Jean-Ruel, H.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Kawahara, K.

N. Tagawa, M. Takada, A. Mori, H. Sawada, and K. Kawahara, Tribol. Lett. 24, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, H. K. Park, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, Proc. SPIE 7409, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klug, D. D.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

Lan, S.

Li, X.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 21505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. W.

Liang, F.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

Liu, P. J.

Lu, Y.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Lysak, T. M.

Makin, V. S.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marder, M. P.

M. P. Marder, Condensed Matter Physics (Wiley, 2000).

Martín-Fabiani, I.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mauclair, C.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meier, D.

H. Yuan, V. Yost, M. Page, P. Stradins, D. Meier, and H. Branz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Opt. Express 16, 5481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mishchik, K.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Miura, K.

Mori, A.

N. Tagawa, M. Takada, A. Mori, H. Sawada, and K. Kawahara, Tribol. Lett. 24, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neumeier, M.

Oberer, C.

Ouerdane, Y.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Page, M.

H. Yuan, V. Yost, M. Page, P. Stradins, D. Meier, and H. Branz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pahk, H. J.

T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, H. K. Park, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, Proc. SPIE 7409, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papadakis, G.

T. S. Drakakis, G. Papadakis, K. Sambani, G. Filippidis, S. Georgiou, E. Gizeli, C. Fotakis, and M. Farsari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

T. W. Kim, H. J. Pahk, H. K. Park, D. J. Hwang, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, Proc. SPIE 7409, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Perdew, J. P.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perez, S.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1986).

Rajeev, P. P.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 28, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rebollar, E.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

T. J. Y. Derrien, J. Krüger, T. E. Itina, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Bonse, Opt. Express 21, 29643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, Opt. Lett. 18, 24809 (2010).

Rueda, D. R.

E. Rebollar, S. Perez, J. J. Hernandez, I. Martín-Fabiani, D. R. Rueda, T. A. Ezquerra, and M. Castillejo, Langmuir 27, 5596 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the optical setup of the crystallographic experiments. The crystal axis [011] is fixed parallel to the x -axis direction. The red arrow represents that the sample is rotated around its [100] axis clockwise (look down the z axis). (b) Cubic crystal structure (top) and the corresponding crystal structure (bottom) on the surface of the sample Si (100) is shown looking down the z axis with dashed lines as eye guides for symmetry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the fs laser irradiated spot in different crystal orientations on (a)–(f) (100) Si and (g)–(l) (111) Si, respectively. The average laser fluence and pulse number are the same with (100) Si and (111) Si of 0.2 J / cm 2 and 150, respectively. All the images share the same scale bar of 5 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM image of the fs laser irradiated spots on (100) Si with different relative angles ranging from 0° to 180°. From top to bottom, the number of pulses per spot is increased from 100 to 500. The average laser fluence is 0.2 J / cm 2 , and the scale bar is 100 μm. (b) The corresponding rippled area is shown as a function of relative angle ( σ ) from 0° to 180° for different pulse numbers ( N ).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)–(c) SEM images of the scanning lines induced by different angles β . The scale bar is 10 μm. (d) The schematic diagram of the direct scanning process.

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