Abstract

We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the experimental implementation of a quick response (QR) code as a “container” in an optical encryption system. A joint transform correlator architecture in an interferometric configuration is chosen as the experimental scheme. As the implementation is not possible in a single step, a multiplexing procedure to encrypt the QR code of the original information is applied. Once the QR code is correctly decrypted, the speckle noise present in the recovered QR code is eliminated by a simple digital procedure. Finally, the original information is retrieved completely free of any kind of degradation after reading the QR code. Additionally, we propose and implement a new protocol in which the reception of the encrypted QR code and its decryption, the digital block processing, and the reading of the decrypted QR code are performed employing only one device (smartphone, tablet, or computer). The overall method probes to produce an outcome far more attractive to make the adoption of the technique a plausible option. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed security system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

J. M. Vilardy, M. S. Millan, and E. Perez-Cabre, J. Opt. 15, 025401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, A. Mira, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 21, 5373 (2013).
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O. Graydon, Nat. Photonics 7, 343 (2013).

2011

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 19, 5706 (2011).

W. Qin, X. Peng, B. Gao, and X. Meng, Opt. Eng. 50, 080501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 284, 735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

W. Qin and X. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, J. Netw. 5, 937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2005

2002

2000

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Barrera, J. F.

J. F. Barrera, A. Vélez, and R. Torroba, J. Opt. 15, 055404 (2013) (IOPselect article).
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J. F. Barrera, A. Mira, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 21, 5373 (2013).
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J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
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F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 19, 5706 (2011).

Bolognini, N.

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 19, 5706 (2011).

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, C.

Gao, B.

W. Qin, X. Peng, B. Gao, and X. Meng, Opt. Eng. 50, 080501 (2011).
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Graydon, O.

O. Graydon, Nat. Photonics 7, 343 (2013).

Hanaizumi, H.

E. Ohbuchi, H. Hanaizumi, and L. A. Hock, in Proceedings of IEEE 2004 International Conference on Cyberworlds (IEEE, 2004), pp. 260–265.

Hock, L. A.

E. Ohbuchi, H. Hanaizumi, and L. A. Hock, in Proceedings of IEEE 2004 International Conference on Cyberworlds (IEEE, 2004), pp. 260–265.

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Lee, W. H.

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, J. Netw. 5, 937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, K. C.

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, J. Netw. 5, 937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maghzi, N.

Matoba, O.

Meng, X.

W. Qin, X. Peng, B. Gao, and X. Meng, Opt. Eng. 50, 080501 (2011).
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Millan, M. S.

J. M. Vilardy, M. S. Millan, and E. Perez-Cabre, J. Opt. 15, 025401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mira, A.

Mosso, F.

Naughton, T. J.

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 284, 735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishchal, N. K.

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 284, 735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, Opt. Eng. 39, 2031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohbuchi, E.

E. Ohbuchi, H. Hanaizumi, and L. A. Hock, in Proceedings of IEEE 2004 International Conference on Cyberworlds (IEEE, 2004), pp. 260–265.

Peng, X.

W. Qin, X. Peng, B. Gao, and X. Meng, Opt. Eng. 50, 080501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Qin and X. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Cabre, E.

J. M. Vilardy, M. S. Millan, and E. Perez-Cabre, J. Opt. 15, 025401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

W. Qin, X. Peng, B. Gao, and X. Meng, Opt. Eng. 50, 080501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Qin and X. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Réfrégier, P.

Ríos, C.

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rueda, E.

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

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F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 19, 5706 (2011).

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Torroba, R.

J. F. Barrera, A. Vélez, and R. Torroba, J. Opt. 15, 055404 (2013) (IOPselect article).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, A. Mira, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 21, 5373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Express 19, 5706 (2011).

Towghi, N.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Vélez, A.

J. F. Barrera, A. Vélez, and R. Torroba, J. Opt. 15, 055404 (2013) (IOPselect article).
[CrossRef]

Verrall, S. C.

Vilardy, J. M.

J. M. Vilardy, M. S. Millan, and E. Perez-Cabre, J. Opt. 15, 025401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

J. Netw.

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, J. Netw. 5, 937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

J. M. Vilardy, M. S. Millan, and E. Perez-Cabre, J. Opt. 15, 025401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, A. Vélez, and R. Torroba, J. Opt. 15, 055404 (2013) (IOPselect article).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

O. Graydon, Nat. Photonics 7, 343 (2013).

Opt. Commun.

J. F. Barrera, E. Rueda, C. Ríos, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, Opt. Commun. 284, 4350 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 284, 735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. Qin, X. Peng, B. Gao, and X. Meng, Opt. Eng. 50, 080501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, Opt. Eng. 39, 2031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. Ohbuchi, H. Hanaizumi, and L. A. Hock, in Proceedings of IEEE 2004 International Conference on Cyberworlds (IEEE, 2004), pp. 260–265.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the encryption procedure (SF, spatial filter; C, collimating lens; BS1 and BS2, beam splitters; P1 and P2, polarizers; G, ground glass; SLM, spatial light modulator; L, lens; M1 and M2, mirrors).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Virtual processing scheme. The multiplexed package is correctly decrypted yielding to the QR code. Afterward, a binarization procedure follows to get a noiseless QR code for an optimized reading.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Original QR code of letter “A,” (b) decrypted QR code when (a) is used as a single input, (c) decrypted QR code using subsampling and multiplexing, (d) magnified inset box showing the digital block processing, and (e) decrypted QR code after the block processing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Input message and (b) its respective QR code, (c) encrypted QR code, (d) decrypted QR code, (e) decrypted QR code after block processing, and (f) recovered information after reading (e).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ul(x0,y0)=ol(x0,y0)δ(x0b,y0)+k(x0,y0)δ(x0(b),y0),
JPSl(u,v)=|Ol(u,v)|2+Ol*(u,v)K(u,v)exp(4πibu)+|K(u,v)|2+Ol(u,v)K*(u,v)exp(4πibu),
El(u,v)=Ol(u,v)K*(u,v)exp[2πi(xlu+ylv)].
EQR(u,v)=l=1mOl(u,v)K*(u,v)exp[2πi(xlu+ylv)].
DQR(x,y)=l=1msl(x,y)r(x,y)δ(xxl,yyl).

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