Abstract

An extension of a theorem for light extraction [Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013)] from a higher index luminescent body (LED or phosphor) through an extracting surface into a lower index output medium is derived. The result is valid for both geometric and diffractive surface structures. Using this bound and radiation transport calculations, we show that extraction from LEDs or phosphors requires a combination of cavity effects to enhance radiance behind the extracting surface and scattering or diffraction to couple trapped total-internal-reflection modes to propagating modes. The treatment applies to macroscopic luminescent sources whose thickness exceeds the longitudinal coherence length of the luminescent radiation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. David, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 301 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Wiesmann, “Nano-structured LEDs: light extraction mechanisms and applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Regensburg, 2009).
  3. K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Mao and R. F. Karlicek, Opt. Lett. 38, 2796 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, J. K. Park, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, Opt. Express 16, 5689 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Joray, “Microcavity light emitting diodes in the visible red and near infrared wavelength range,” Ph.D. dissertation (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2005).
  8. R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).
  10. J. Muschaweck and C. Wiesmann, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013).
  11. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Single Scattering and Transport Theory (Academic, 1978), Vol. 1.
  12. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

J. Muschaweck and C. Wiesmann, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013).

A. David, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Mao and R. F. Karlicek, Opt. Lett. 38, 2796 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, J. K. Park, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, Opt. Express 16, 5689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1998

Bergenek, K.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouillard, J. S.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, D.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

Genet, C.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, F.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

Hu, J.

R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Single Scattering and Transport Theory (Academic, 1978), Vol. 1.

Joray, R.

R. Joray, “Microcavity light emitting diodes in the visible red and near infrared wavelength range,” Ph.D. dissertation (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2005).

Karlicek, R. F.

Kats, A. V.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelso, J.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

Kim, Y. C.

Ko, K. Y.

Krauss, T. F.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University, 2006).

Laux, E.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Linder, N.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linkov, A.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

Luo, X.

R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mahboub, O.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mao, A.

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University, 2006).

Muschaweck, J.

J. Muschaweck and C. Wiesmann, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013).

O’Faolain, L.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Page, R.

Park, J. K.

Przybilla, F.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raukas, M.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

Small, D. L.

Spevak, I. S.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University, 2006).

Wiesmann, C.

J. Muschaweck and C. Wiesmann, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013).

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, “Nano-structured LEDs: light extraction mechanisms and applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Regensburg, 2009).

Wirth, R.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu Nikitin, A.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

Zheng, H.

R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

Adv. Opt. Technol.

J. Muschaweck and C. Wiesmann, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O’Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, F. Przybilla, E. Laux, O. Mahboub, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, J. S. Bouillard, A. V. Zayats, I. S. Spevak, A. V. Kats, A. Yu Nikitin, and L. Martín-Moreno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Hermann, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, R3168 (2013).

J. Disp. Technol.

R. Hu, H. Zheng, J. Hu, and X. Luo, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 447 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. David, J. Disp. Technol. 9, 301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Wiesmann, “Nano-structured LEDs: light extraction mechanisms and applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Regensburg, 2009).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Single Scattering and Transport Theory (Academic, 1978), Vol. 1.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University, 2006).

R. Joray, “Microcavity light emitting diodes in the visible red and near infrared wavelength range,” Ph.D. dissertation (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram showing CLC geometry with forward emitting LED and phosphor converter with refractive indices n1>n2: (a) CLC layer without extraction surface or scattering showing propagating radiation at angle of incidence θ below critical angle θc and trapped radiation at θ>θc; (b) shows the same geometry but with volume scatterers and/or extraction surface SE. Radiance distribution L1(θ) is incident on reference surface Sref just inside the phosphor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of test extraction surface SE enclosed between ideal blackbodies B1 and B2 having refractive indices n1>n2. SE is sealed between the blackbody walls. The extraction surface has reflectances R1 and R2 and corresponding transmittances T12 and T21.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Geometry for derivation of nonuniform radiance limit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot showing Lambertian (dashed line) and isotropic (solid curve) normalized radiances. The central hashed region is Σ for a flat surface below the critical angle for YAG phosphor (n1=1.83) into air. Outer shaded regions correspond to Σ for an optimal extraction surface with isotropic radiance distribution inside YAG phosphor.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of RT simulations showing effect of scattering on internal radiance distribution at SE: solid, dashed, and dotted curves are for increasing scattering length ratio, γscl; short dashed line is internal radiance from isotropic emitters into semi-infinite region, bounded by LED mirror (R=0.9) on other side.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Surface Extraction Efficiencies

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T12=T21(n2n1)2(n2n1)2.
L2(Ω2)=Ω+dΩ1cosθ1t12(Ω2,Ω1)L1(Ω1),
ΔP2ΔP1=Ω+dΩ2cosθ2t12(Ω2,Ω1)L1(Ω1)ΔΩ1cosθ1ΔΩ1cosθ1L1(Ω1)=Ω+dΩ2cosθ2t12(Ω2,Ω1)τ12(Ω1).
ηSE=P2P1=1πΩ+dΩ1cosθ1τ12(Ω1)L1(Ω1)1πΩ+dΩ1cosθ1L1(Ω1).
1πΩ+dΩ1cosθ1τ12(Ω1)=T12(n2n1)2.
1πΣdΩ1cosθ1(n2n1)2,
ηES=P2P1maxΣ1πΣdΩ1cosθ1L¯1(Ω1),
L¯(Ω)L(Ω)1πΩ+dΩcosθL(Ω),

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