Abstract

An extension of a theorem for light extraction [Adv. Opt. Technol. 2, 291 (2013)] from a higher index luminescent body (LED or phosphor) through an extracting surface into a lower index output medium is derived. The result is valid for both geometric and diffractive surface structures. Using this bound and radiation transport calculations, we show that extraction from LEDs or phosphors requires a combination of cavity effects to enhance radiance behind the extracting surface and scattering or diffraction to couple trapped total-internal-reflection modes to propagating modes. The treatment applies to macroscopic luminescent sources whose thickness exceeds the longitudinal coherence length of the luminescent radiation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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