Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and cost-effective ultra-flat optical frequency comb (OFC) generator by directly modulating a standalone dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) with only one radio frequency (RF) signal without any other assisting devices. Five- and seven-tone OFC with exactly the same intensity can be theoretically generated using two sets of parameters obtained by solving equations derived from the DP-MZM modulation model. In good agreement with the theoretical results, five- and seven-tone OFC with flatness of 0.1 and 1 dB are experimentally demonstrated, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and T. Healy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OThR4.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Opt. Lett. 32, 1515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. O’Riordan, S. J. Fabbri, and A. D. Ellis, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Tu.B1.5.
  12. I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. C. Chen, F. Zhang, and S. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2164 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Bäuerle, M. Winter, P. Kleinow, B. Nebendahl, T. Dippon, P. C. Schindler, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Opt. Express 20, 6439 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, F. Zhang, and S. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, X. Ge, and S. Pan, Opt. Lett. 38, 4491 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, Opt. Lett. 32, 1515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bäuerle, B.

Chen, C.

C. Chen, F. Zhang, and S. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chi, N.

Chien, H.

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dippon, T.

Dong, Z.

Ellis, A. D.

C. O’Riordan, S. J. Fabbri, and A. D. Ellis, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Tu.B1.5.

Ellis, D.

D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and T. Healy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OThR4.

Fabbri, S. J.

C. O’Riordan, S. J. Fabbri, and A. D. Ellis, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Tu.B1.5.

Freude, W.

Garcia Gunning, F. C.

D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and T. Healy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OThR4.

Ge, X.

Gee, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gheorma, I. L.

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

He, C.

Healy, T.

D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and T. Healy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OThR4.

Hillerkuss, D.

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Kleinow, P.

Komukai, T.

Koos, C.

Leaird, D. E.

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Li, W.

Long, C. M.

Metcalf, A. J.

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nebendahl, B.

O’Riordan, C.

C. O’Riordan, S. J. Fabbri, and A. D. Ellis, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Tu.B1.5.

Ozdur, I.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, M.

Pan, S.

Quinlan, F.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Schindler, P. C.

Schmogrow, R.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Suzuki, K.

Takada, A.

Torres-Company, V.

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

Wolf, S.

Wu, R.

Xiao, X.

Yamamoto, T.

Yao, J.

M. Wang and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Li and J. Yao, Opt. Express 17, 23712 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, X. Ge, and S. Pan, Opt. Lett. 38, 4491 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, F. Zhang, and S. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Wang and J. Yao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1011 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, F. Zhang, and S. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and T. Healy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OThR4.

C. O’Riordan, S. J. Fabbri, and A. D. Ellis, in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2011), paper Tu.B1.5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed ultra-flat OFC generator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra and waveforms of the generated 25 GHz five-tone OFC using a single-driven DP-MZM: (a) and (b) theoretically; (c) and (d) experimentally.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra and waveforms of the generated 25 GHz seven-tone OFC using a single-driven DP-MZM: (a) and (b) theoretically; (c) and (d) experimentally.

Equations (12)

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Eout=Ein4{exp(jπVπVbias1)exp[jπ2VπVsin(ωt)]+exp[jπ2VπVsin(ωt)]+exp[jπVπ(Vbias2+Vbias3)]+exp(jπVπVbias3)},
Eout=Ein4{exp(jVa)exp[jβsin(ωt)]+exp[jβsin(ωt)]+exp(jVb+jVc)+exp(jVc)}=Ein4{n=[exp(jVa)+(1)n]Jn(β)exp(jnωt)+exp(jVb+jVc)+exp(jVc)},
I0|Eout0|2=|Ein|28{(1+cosVa)J02(β)+1+cos(Vb)+[cos(VaVbVc)+cos(Va+Vc)+cos(VaVc)+cos(Vc)]J0(β)},
In|Eoutn|2=|Ein|28[1+(1)ncos(Va)]Jn2(β).
cos(Va)=J12(β)J22(β)J12(β)+J22(β).
I0=I1.
sin2(Va2)J12(β)cos2(Vb2)cos2(Va2)J02(β)2cos(VcVaVb2)cos(Vb2)cos(Va2)J0(β)=0.
I0=I±1=I±2,
|J1(β)|=|J3(β)|,
I±1=I±3,
I±1=I±2,
I0=I±1=I±2=I±3

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