Abstract

We have recently shown [Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012)] that Alkali atoms contained in a vapor cell can serve as a highly accurate standard for microwave (MW) electric field strength as well as polarization. Here we show for the first time that Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency can be used to image MW electric fields with unprecedented precision. The spatial resolution of the method is far into the subwavelength regime λ/650 or 66 μm at 6.9 GHz. The electric field resolutions are similar to those we have already demonstrated 50μVcm1. Our experimental results agree with finite element calculations of test electric-field patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, and J. P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 063001 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kanda, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 41, 1349 (1993).
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  6. V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Meas. Tech. 46, 796 (2003).
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  7. V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Measurement Techniques 46, 903 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 222 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Swan-Wood, J. G. Coffer, and J. C. Camparo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1229 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Pendry, Opt. Photon. News 15, 32 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, Physica B 394, 137 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
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  14. P. Böhi and P. Treutlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181107 (2012).
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  15. A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
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  17. A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, Phys. Scr. 75, 345 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Mohapatra, M. Bason, B. Butscher, K. Weatherhill, and C. S. Adams, Nat. Phys. 4, 890 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. R. Overstreet, J. Franklin, and J. P. Shaffer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4749 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. A. Steck, “Cesium d line data, revision 2.1.4,” (2010) available at http://steck.us/alkalidata .
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    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Baluktsian, C. Urban, T. Bublat, H. Giessen, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Opt. Lett. 35, 1950 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, and J. P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 063001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. Böhi and P. Treutlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photonics 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baluktsian, C. Urban, T. Bublat, H. Giessen, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Opt. Lett. 35, 1950 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Mohapatra, M. Bason, B. Butscher, K. Weatherhill, and C. S. Adams, Nat. Phys. 4, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, Phys. Scr. 75, 345 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, Physica B 394, 137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Hall, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Pendry, Opt. Photon. News 15, 32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Overstreet, J. Franklin, and J. P. Shaffer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Meas. Tech. 46, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Measurement Techniques 46, 903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Swan-Wood, J. G. Coffer, and J. C. Camparo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Kanda, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 36, 261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Kanda, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 41, 1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mohapatra, M. Bason, B. Butscher, K. Weatherhill, and C. S. Adams, Nat. Phys. 4, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Affolderbach, C.

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anlage, S. M.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, Physica B 394, 137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baluktsian, T.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photonics 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baluktsian, C. Urban, T. Bublat, H. Giessen, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Opt. Lett. 35, 1950 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bason, M.

A. Mohapatra, M. Bason, B. Butscher, K. Weatherhill, and C. S. Adams, Nat. Phys. 4, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Böhi, P.

P. Böhi and P. Treutlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bublat, T.

Budker, D.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Butscher, B.

A. Mohapatra, M. Bason, B. Butscher, K. Weatherhill, and C. S. Adams, Nat. Phys. 4, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Camparo, J. C.

T. Swan-Wood, J. G. Coffer, and J. C. Camparo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J. G.

T. Swan-Wood, J. G. Coffer, and J. C. Camparo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, R.

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, Physica B 394, 137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Du, G.-X.

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, B. K.

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, Phys. Scr. 75, 345 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S. K.

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feenstra, B.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feenstra, B. J.

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, J.

K. R. Overstreet, J. Franklin, and J. P. Shaffer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauguet, A.

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Hall, J.

J. Hall, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, R. B.

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, A.

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irsen, S.

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T. R.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, M.

M. Kanda, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 36, 261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kanda, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 41, 1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, H.

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, and J. P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 063001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photonics 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Löw, R.

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photonics 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baluktsian, C. Urban, T. Bublat, H. Giessen, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Opt. Lett. 35, 1950 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanov, V.

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Measurement Techniques 46, 903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Meas. Tech. 46, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mahapatra, P. K.

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, Phys. Scr. 75, 345 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, D.

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mileti, G.

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, A.

A. Mohapatra, M. Bason, B. Butscher, K. Weatherhill, and C. S. Adams, Nat. Phys. 4, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, A. K.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newman, H. S.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niegemann, J.

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, Nano Lett. 13, 703 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Overstreet, K. R.

K. R. Overstreet, J. Franklin, and J. P. Shaffer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellaton, M.

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J.

J. Pendry, Opt. Photon. News 15, 32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photonics 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baluktsian, C. Urban, T. Bublat, H. Giessen, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Opt. Lett. 35, 1950 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Potvliege, R. M.

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, J. D.

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

Schwettmann, A.

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, and J. P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 063001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sedlacek, J. A.

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, and J. P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 063001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaffer, J. P.

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, and J. P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 063001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sedlacek, A. Schwettmann, H. Kübler, R. Löw, T. Pfau, and J. P. Shaffer, Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photonics 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Overstreet, J. Franklin, and J. P. Shaffer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4749 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, Physica B 394, 137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steck, D. A.

D. A. Steck, “Cesium d line data, revision 2.1.4,” (2010) available at http://steck.us/alkalidata .

Steinhauer, D.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinhauer, D. E.

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swan-Wood, T.

T. Swan-Wood, J. G. Coffer, and J. C. Camparo, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanasittikosol, M.

M. Tanasittikosol, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, R. M. Potvliege, and C. S. Adams, J. Phys. B 44, 184020 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thanawalla, A. S.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, V.

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Measurement Techniques 46, 903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Meas. Tech. 46, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokalty, V.

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Meas. Tech. 46, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Tishchenko, V. Tokalty, and V. Luk’yanov, Measurement Techniques 46, 903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Treutlein, P.

A. Horsley, G.-X. Du, M. Pellaton, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and P. Treutlein, Phys. Rev. A 88, 063407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Böhi and P. Treutlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Urban, C.

Vlahacos, C.

S. Dutta, C. Vlahacos, D. Steinhauer, A. S. Thanawalla, B. Feenstra, F. Wellstood, S. M. Anlage, and H. S. Newman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 156 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vlahacos, C. P.

A. S. Thanawalla, S. K. Dutta, C. P. Vlahacos, D. E. Steinhauer, B. J. Feenstra, S. M. Anlage, F. C. Wellstood, and R. B. Hammond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Cube, F.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup and energy level diagram for the experiments. (a) Ωp and Ωc are the EIT probe and coupling transition Rabi frequencies, respectively. MW labels the transition used for the standing-wave electric-field measurements. (b) MWs supplied by the horn antenna form a standing wave between the aluminum plate and antenna, which is sampled by the atoms in the Cs vapor cell. The horn antenna and plate are moved together to change the position of the vapor cell in the standing-wave MW electric field.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measurement of the EIT dark state splitting versus distance from the horn antenna. The theoretical FE calculation (blue), photodiode measurement (red), and image measurement data (black) are shown for a trace taken along the centerline of the image. (b) 2D image of the MW electric field. The data is composed of 26 images with a step size of 1 mm in the direction along the cavity axis, x. In the transverse, y direction, a 2 mm cross-section with the zero point at the center of the probe beam is displayed. The error bars show the standard deviation between the photodiode and imaging measurements. The errors from fitting the data are small compared to variations in the measurements. The inset shows typical raw data (blue points) and the two Gaussian peak fit (red line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photodiode measurement of the EIT splitting versus distance at different positions of the probe beam for square (blue) and cylindrical (black) cells compared with the FE calculations (red). The representative error bars are the standard deviation of the measurement from the theory. The errors from fitting the data are small compared with variations in the measurements. The measurements at different positions within the two cells agreed to within 6%. This shows that the dielectric walls of the cells minimally perturb the measured MW electric fields. The inset shows typical raw data (blue) and the two Gaussian peak fit (red).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) This figure shows the FE calculation directly above the CPW where the MW electric field was sampled. (b) This figure shows the imaging data corresponding to (a). (c) This plot shows a comparison between the data and the FE calculation along the z axis at x=0. x=0 is at the center of the CPW. Solid circles (black) are the imaging data while the solid squares (blue) are the FE calculation. The line (red) is a plot of Aexp(2πz/λMW), where A is a constant determined by a fit to the data. The geometry is shown in the inset of (c).

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