Abstract

We report enhanced green and red upconversion (UC) luminescence in Ho3+-doped oxyfluoride germanate glass by introducing bismuth near-infrared active centers as sensitizers. The UC excitation bands at 750 and 970 nm show a full width at half-maximum of 20 and 45 nm, respectively. Energy transfer from sensitizers, the excited-state absorption, and phonon-coupled absorption of Ho3+ jointly contribute to the enhanced UC luminescence. Our approach provides an efficient methodology to broaden the excitation bandwidth of UC luminescent materials, which may have the potential for promising application in solar cells.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (7)

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang, and X. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang and J. Hao, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 5607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

Q. Sheng, X. Wang, and D. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95, 3019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. Hao, H. L. W. Chan, W. Wong, and K. Wong, Small 8, 1863 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zou, C. Visser, J. A. Maduro, M. S. P. Shenichnikov, and J. C. Hummelen, Nat. Photonics 6, 560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, D. Tan, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, K. N. Sharafudeen, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 20, 29105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, Physiol. Meas. 23, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, Sol. Energy 73, 443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Kawamoto, and J. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. E. Auzel, Proc. IEEE 61, 758 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F. E.

F. E. Auzel, Proc. IEEE 61, 758 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bai, G.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bilsel, O. S.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Calvilla-Quintero, J. M.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. L. W.

Z. Wang, J. Hao, H. L. W. Chan, W. Wong, and K. Wong, Small 8, 1863 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Chen, D.

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sheng, X. Wang, and D. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95, 3019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Chen, X.

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deng, R.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, Sol. Energy 73, 443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Fei, B.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, N.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, Sol. Energy 73, 443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Han, G.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Han, S.

X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang, and X. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang and J. Hao, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 5607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. Hao, H. L. W. Chan, W. Wong, and K. Wong, Small 8, 1863 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Hao, C. L. Mak, and X. Wei, Opt. Express 19, 1824 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Z.

Huang, W.

X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang, and X. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang, and X. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

W. Zou, C. Visser, J. A. Maduro, M. S. P. Shenichnikov, and J. C. Hummelen, Nat. Photonics 6, 560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hung, T. F.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H.

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, Y.

J. Qiu, Y. Kawamoto, and J. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayana, G.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lei, L.

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang, and X. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maduro, J. A.

W. Zou, C. Visser, J. A. Maduro, M. S. P. Shenichnikov, and J. C. Hummelen, Nat. Photonics 6, 560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mak, C. L.

Martín, I. R.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, Physiol. Meas. 23, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meglinski, I. V.

I. V. Meglinski and S. J. Matcher, Physiol. Meas. 23, 741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, D.

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, Sol. Energy 73, 443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M.

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, D. Tan, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, K. N. Sharafudeen, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 20, 29105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Kawamoto, and J. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharafudeen, K. N.

Shen, J.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Sheng, Q.

Q. Sheng, X. Wang, and D. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95, 3019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shenichnikov, M. S. P.

W. Zou, C. Visser, J. A. Maduro, M. S. P. Shenichnikov, and J. C. Hummelen, Nat. Photonics 6, 560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, Q.

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

Teng, Y.

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Visser, C.

W. Zou, C. Visser, J. A. Maduro, M. S. P. Shenichnikov, and J. C. Hummelen, Nat. Photonics 6, 560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vu, A.

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Wang, B.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Q. Sheng, X. Wang, and D. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95, 3019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. Hao, H. L. W. Chan, W. Wong, and K. Wong, Small 8, 1863 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

Wen, H.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.

Z. Wang, J. Hao, H. L. W. Chan, W. Wong, and K. Wong, Small 8, 1863 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.

Z. Wang, J. Hao, H. L. W. Chan, W. Wong, and K. Wong, Small 8, 1863 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, D. Tan, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, K. N. Sharafudeen, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 20, 29105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A.

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Kawamoto, and J. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

B. Xu, J. Hao, Q. Guo, J. Wang, G. Bai, B. Fei, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 2482 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, D. Tan, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, K. N. Sharafudeen, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 20, 29105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Deng, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Teng, H. Jia, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 8023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zou, W.

W. Zou, C. Visser, J. A. Maduro, M. S. P. Shenichnikov, and J. C. Hummelen, Nat. Photonics 6, 560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Shen, G. Chen, A. Vu, W. Fan, O. S. Bilsel, C. C. Chang, and G. Han, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 644 (2013).

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

H. Wen, H. Zhu, X. Chen, T. F. Hung, B. Wang, G. Zhu, S. F. Yu, and F. Wang, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 52, 13419 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Lai, L. Feng, J. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Su, Appl. Phys. B 110, 101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

D. Chen, L. Lei, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48, 5898 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang, and X. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Q. Sheng, X. Wang, and D. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95, 3019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q. Xu, and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 12608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Qiu, Y. Kawamoto, and J. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Absorption spectra of Bi singly doped and Bi/Ho co-doped glass. The inset is the Raman spectrum of Bi/Ho co-doped glass. (b) PL spectra of Bi singly doped glass excited by 750 and 980 nm. The inset is the emission peak position as a function of the excitation wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UC PL spectra of Ho singly doped and Bi/Ho co-doped glasses excited by 750 and 980 nm, respectively. The insets in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) are the excitation power dependence of the green and red UC emission intensity, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Excitation spectra of Bi/Ho co-doped glass monitored at 545 and 660 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Visible PL spectra of Ho singly and Bi/Ho co-doped glasses. (b), (c) NIR PL spectra of Bi singly, Ho singly, and Bi/Ho co-doped glasses excited by 450 and 980 nm. (d) Fluorescence decay curves of Bi singly and Bi/Ho co-doped glasses monitored at around 1145 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Energy level diagram and the energy transfer between BNIA and Ho3+.

Equations (2)

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IPn,
η=1τBi/HoτBi,

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