Abstract

We report on the fabrication of a birefringent microstructured PMMA fiber with polystyrene stress-applying elements located in the solid part of the cladding. A microstructured part of the cladding composed of three rings of holes was made of a technical-grade PMMA by a drilling method. The fiber shows a relatively high birefringence of the order of 4×105, which weakly depends upon wavelength in the investigated spectral range from 0.6 to 1 μm. The cross talk between polarization modes is lower than 20dB for a 1 m long fiber, while the fiber loss is about 8dB/m at 0.83 μm. We also studied the fiber response to temperature in the range from 20°C to 60°C. The temperature induced birefringence change is negative and shows a significant hysteresis in the first cycle, which gradually disappears in successive cycles.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

J. Olszewski, P. Mergo, K. Gasior, and W. Urbanczyk, J. Opt. 15, 075713 (2013).
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2011 (1)

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[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

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[CrossRef]

P. Hlubina and D. Ciprian, Opt. Express 15, 17019 (2007).
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2005 (2)

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2000 (1)

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K.-H. Tsai, K.-S. Kim, and T. F. Morse, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 7 (1991).
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J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Arriaga, J.

Bang, O.

M. K. Szczurowski, O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and W. Urbanczyk, Proc. SPIE 7753, 77533Z, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bansal, N. P.

N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, 1986).

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[CrossRef]

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W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Ciprian, D.

Cox, F.

Doremus, R. H.

N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, 1986).

Douay, M.

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Favin, D. L.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fellew, M.

Folkenberg, J.

Frazao, O.

M. K. Szczurowski, O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and W. Urbanczyk, Proc. SPIE 7753, 77533Z, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

Gasior, K.

J. Olszewski, P. Mergo, K. Gasior, and W. Urbanczyk, J. Opt. 15, 075713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, Opt. Commun. 163, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, K.

Henry, G.

Hlubina, P.

Iliew, R.

Issa, N. A.

Ivanov, Ch. D.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, Ch. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

Jakobsen, C.

Kasarova, S. N.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, Ch. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

Khan, L.

Kim, K.-S.

K.-H. Tsai, K.-S. Kim, and T. F. Morse, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kubota, H.

Large, M. C. J.

Lederer, F.

Limpert, J.

Mangan, B. J.

Martynkien, T.

Mergo, P.

J. Olszewski, P. Mergo, K. Gasior, and W. Urbanczyk, J. Opt. 15, 075713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1562 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Morse, T. F.

K.-H. Tsai, K.-S. Kim, and T. F. Morse, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N.

Nielsen, K.

M. K. Szczurowski, O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and W. Urbanczyk, Proc. SPIE 7753, 77533Z, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.

Nikolov, I. D.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, Ch. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olszewski, J.

J. Olszewski, P. Mergo, K. Gasior, and W. Urbanczyk, J. Opt. 15, 075713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Orwoll, R. A.

R. A. Orwoll, in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, J. E. Mark, ed. (Springer, 2007), pp. 93–101.

Osgood, R. M.

Petersson, A.

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Provino, L.

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S. C.

Röser, F.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasaki, Y.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Simonsen, H.

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Steel, M. J.

Sultanova, N. G.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, Ch. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Szczurowski, M. K.

Tanaka, M.

Tsai, K.-H.

K.-H. Tsai, K.-S. Kim, and T. F. Morse, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1562 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Olszewski, P. Mergo, K. Gasior, and W. Urbanczyk, J. Opt. 15, 075713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Szczurowski, O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and W. Urbanczyk, Proc. SPIE 7753, 77533Z, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. K. Szczurowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and D. J. Webb, Opt. Express 18, 12076 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Szczurowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, L. Khan, and D. J. Webb, Opt. Lett. 35, 2013 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Webb, D. J.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Belardi, G. Bouwmans, L. Provino, and M. Douay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1562 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Tsai, K.-S. Kim, and T. F. Morse, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

J. Olszewski, P. Mergo, K. Gasior, and W. Urbanczyk, J. Opt. 15, 075713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Ghosh, Opt. Commun. 163, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, Ch. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. K. Szczurowski, O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and W. Urbanczyk, Proc. SPIE 7753, 77533Z, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. A. Orwoll, in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, J. E. Mark, ed. (Springer, 2007), pp. 93–101.

N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic, 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Microscopic image of the fiber cross section. (b) SEM image of the microstructured region. (c) Image of the stress-applying element with a visible PS/PMMA transition layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spectral attenuation measured in the PMMA microstructured fiber with PS stress-applying elements. (b) Transmission spectra registered for the polarizer and the analyzer aligned in parallel (black line) and crossed (gray line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic illustration of the lateral force method. (b) Two spectrograms registered at the fiber output for increasing distance of the coupling point from the fiber end L=0.730m and L+dL=0.736m.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectral dependence of the phase (B) and the group (G) modal birefringence in the PMMA microstructured fiber with PS stress-applying elements. Gray lines represent polynomial fitting of the experimental data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temperature-induced phase shift between polarization modes normalized to fiber length for three successive heating/cooling cycles (a)–(c). Fiber length exposed to temperature changes was L=0.06m, λ=700nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters Determining Fiber Birefringence

Equations (4)

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|G|=λ2ΔλL,
LB(λ)λ=k.
dLdλ=LGλB.
BΔCEΔαΔT2(1ν),

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