Abstract

We present optical palpation, a tactile imaging technique for mapping micrometer- to millimeter-scale mechanical variations in soft tissue. In optical palpation, a stress sensor consisting of translucent, compliant silicone with known stress–strain behavior is placed on the tissue surface and a compressive load is applied. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to measure the local strain in the sensor, from which the local stress at the sample surface is calculated and mapped onto an image. We present results in tissue-mimicking phantoms, demonstrating the detection of a feature embedded 4.7 mm below the sample surface, well beyond the depth range of OCT. We demonstrate the use of optical palpation to delineate the boundary of a region of tumor in freshly excised human breast tissue, validated against histopathology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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P. S. Wellman, R. D. Howe, N. Dewagan, M. A. Cundari, E. Dalton, and K. A. Kern, in Proceedings of the First Joint Engineering in Medicine and Biology and the Biomedical Engineering Society BMES/EMBS Conference (IEEE1999), pp. 1131–1132.

Dewagan, N.

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K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121508 (2013).
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R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
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Guan, G.

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P. S. Wellman, R. D. Howe, N. Dewagan, M. A. Cundari, E. Dalton, and K. A. Kern, in Proceedings of the First Joint Engineering in Medicine and Biology and the Biomedical Engineering Society BMES/EMBS Conference (IEEE1999), pp. 1131–1132.

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P. S. Wellman, R. D. Howe, N. Dewagan, M. A. Cundari, E. Dalton, and K. A. Kern, in Proceedings of the First Joint Engineering in Medicine and Biology and the Biomedical Engineering Society BMES/EMBS Conference (IEEE1999), pp. 1131–1132.

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C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
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R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
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C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
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J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
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M. I. Tiwana, S. J. Redmond, and N. H. Lovell, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 179, 17 (2012).
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M. I. Tiwana, S. J. Redmond, and N. H. Lovell, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 179, 17 (2012).
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Wang, S.

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P. S. Wellman, R. D. Howe, N. Dewagan, M. A. Cundari, E. Dalton, and K. A. Kern, in Proceedings of the First Joint Engineering in Medicine and Biology and the Biomedical Engineering Society BMES/EMBS Conference (IEEE1999), pp. 1131–1132.

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J. Lee and C. Won, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 2084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R.

C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 7101217 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

J. Lee and C. Won, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 2084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

V. Egorov and A. P. Sarvazyan, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

C. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Photonics 7, 752 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, Science 269, 1854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

M. I. Tiwana, S. J. Redmond, and N. H. Lovell, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 179, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ultrason. Imag.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, Ultrason. Imag. 13, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. S. Wellman, R. D. Howe, N. Dewagan, M. A. Cundari, E. Dalton, and K. A. Kern, in Proceedings of the First Joint Engineering in Medicine and Biology and the Biomedical Engineering Society BMES/EMBS Conference (IEEE1999), pp. 1131–1132.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a), (b) Schematics of the optical palpation setup for an inclusion phantom and (c), (d) corresponding OCT B-scans before and after compression, respectively. (e) The stress–strain curve of the sensor material, used to estimate the local stress from the measured local strain ε(x,y). (f) En face stress map (optical palpation image) of the inclusion phantom.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Validation of stress measurements. The black line indicates ideal sensor (i.e., expected=measured stress), and the blue stars indicate actual measured stress.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the contrast in OCT and optical palpation. (a), (b) En face OCT images 500 μm below the low and high scattering surfaces of the phantom, respectively, and (c), (d) the corresponding optical palpation images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical palpation detects a feature situated 4.7 mm below the sample surface. Setups for (a) OCT imaging and (b) optical palpation imaging (post-compression), (c) en face OCT image 0.8 mm past Surface A, (d) optical palpation image generated from Surface B, 3.2 mm above the inclusion after compression. The black dotted circle indicates the actual diameter of the inclusion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optical palpation image of human breast cancer tissue and (b) corresponding histology prepared in the imaging plane. DS, desmoplastic stroma; N, necrosis.

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