Abstract

We have investigated the potential of tissue phantoms fabricated with thermosoftening- and photopolymerization-based three-dimensional (3D) printers for use in evaluation of biophotonic imaging systems. The optical properties of printed polymer samples were measured and compared to biological tissues. Phantoms with subsurface channels as small as 0.2 mm in diameter were fabricated and imaged with microscopy, x-ray microtomography, and optical coherence tomography to characterize morphology. These phantoms were then implemented to evaluate the penetration depth of a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system used in conjunction with a near-infrared contrast agent. Results indicated that 3D printing may provide a suitable platform for performance testing in biophotonics, although subsurface imaging is critical to mitigate printer-to-printer variability in matrix homogeneity and feature microstructure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2014

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nguyen, H. Le, M. Vo, Z. Wang, L. Luu, and J. Ramella-Roman, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1200 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. L. Cote, and M. J. McShane, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Keshava, Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 55 (2003).

2002

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

Agrawal, A.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akl, T.

Bakic, P.

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baxi, J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Behdad, N.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burfeindt, M. J.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, W.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Carton, A.-K.

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. K.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colgan, T. J.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cote, G. L.

D’Anna, S. A.

Derand, H.

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, D. D.

Ericson, M. N.

Giesel, F. L.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, G. E.

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grijpma, D. W.

S. M. Peltola, F. P. W. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and M. Kellomäki, Ann. Med. 40, 268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grimmond, B.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gulsen, G.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hollister, S. J.

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ilev, I.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kandimalla, H.

Kauczor, H.-U.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kellomäki, M.

S. M. Peltola, F. P. W. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and M. Kellomäki, Ann. Med. 40, 268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keshava, N.

N. Keshava, Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 55 (2003).

King, T.

Le, H.

Lin, Y.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

Luk, A. T.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luu, L.

Maidment, A. D. A.

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, S. A.

Mays, R. O.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McShane, M. J.

Mehndiratta, A.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melchels, F. P. W.

S. M. Peltola, F. P. W. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and M. Kellomäki, Ann. Med. 40, 268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nabili, A.

Nalcioglu, O.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, M. E.

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, Q. D.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, H. Kandimalla, A. Nabili, D. D. Duncan, S. A. D’Anna, S. M. Shah, and Q. D. Nguyen, Opt. Express 16, 6170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.

O’Neil, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohye, R. G.

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peltola, S. M.

S. M. Peltola, F. P. W. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and M. Kellomäki, Ann. Med. 40, 268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, J.

J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, T. J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

Protsenko, D.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramella-Roman, J.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

Rengier, F.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roggan, A.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schober, R.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, P.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzmaier, H.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sepah, Y. J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Shah, S. M.

Shea, J. D.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sorg, B.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tengg-Kobligk, H. V.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ullberg, C.

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, F.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unterhinninghofen, R.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uzgiris, E. E.

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Van Veen, B. D.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vo, M.

Wang, Z.

Welch, A. J.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, Appl. Opt. 32, 559 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M.

Yaroslavsky, A.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaroslavsky, I.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zechmann, C. M.

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zopf, D. A.

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Med.

S. M. Peltola, F. P. W. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and M. Kellomäki, Ann. Med. 40, 268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett.

M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. CARS

F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Lab. J.

N. Keshava, Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 55 (2003).

Med. Phys.

A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Engl. J. Med.

D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical properties of 3D-printed polymer samples compared to biological tissue [1113]: (a) μs and (b) μa.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscopy images on side surface (XZ plane, Y=0mm) of (a) ABS phantoms with varied channel size and (b) LTPP phantoms with varied channel depth.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Micro-CT images of an ABS phantom: 3D view of (a) full phantom (b) subvolume near a channel, where parts showing in white represents empty spaces (air), and cross-section view of (c) XY plane, 1 mm below the surface; (d) XZ plane across a channel; and (e) YZ plane across two channels, where the dark region represents empty spaces (air).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Micro-CT images of LTPP phantom with multisize channels: (a) 3D view, (b) XZ plane showing five channels, and YZ plane along (c) 0.2 mm and (d) 1.0 mm channels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OCT images of (a)–(d) LTPP and (e)–(h) HTPP phantom. Channels filled with (a), (b), (e), (f) with water; (c), (d), (g), (h) with 1% Intralipid solution. (a), (c), (e), (g) XZ plane; (b), (d), (f), (h) YZ plane.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Channel of 0.2 mm designed diameter: (a), (b) XZ and YZ plane of a thicker section; (c), (d) XZ and YZ plane of a thinner section.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Evaluation of imaging penetration depth with 3D printed phantom: (a) HRI image at 770 nm of HTPP phantom with 0.4–2.0 mm deep channels, filled with 10 μM IR800 dye, where overlay shows solved abundance (unitless) from spectral fitting; (b) Results for IR800 concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μM.

Equations (1)

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A(λ)=log[I(λ)/I0(λ)],

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