Abstract

We demonstrate a method to lock a laser frequency of up to 40 GHz offset to a reference using a 10 GHz waveguide-type electro-optic modulator (EOM). Offsetting is provided by the EOM sidebands, and first- to fourth-order sidebands are generated by changing the power of the EOM’s driving radio frequency. By scanning the driving frequency across the 10 GHz bandwidth, the output laser frequency can be set at any point in an 80 GHz range (from 40 to 40 GHz) by locking a sideband to the reference. This method provides simple, stable, and low-cost generation of phase-coherent laser pairs separated by tens of GHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Numata, J. R. Chen, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 20, 14234 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. I. Thorpe, K. Numata, and J. Livas, Opt. Express 16, 15980 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 20, 14234 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. I. Thorpe, K. Numata, and J. Livas, Opt. Express 16, 15980 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Argence, B.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Auger, G.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, F.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barke, S.

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Battesti, R.

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bertoldi, A.

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouchendira, R.

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cacciapuoti, L.

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Camparo, J. C.

J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

Chen, L.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clade, P.

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Darquie, B.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DelHaye, P.

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, W.

P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

deVismes, E.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gremaud, B.

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. H.

P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guellati-Khelifa, S.

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Halloin, H.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, G.

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeannin, O.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Julien, L.

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamporesi, G.

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le Cop, Y.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Legero, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Livas, J.

Martin, M. J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Numata, K.

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, D.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plagnol, E.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prat, P.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, B.

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shelkovnikov, A.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stoeffler, C.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B. Z.

P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, J. I.

Tino, G. M.

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokunaga, S. K.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Trobs, M.

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turazza, O.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Ye, J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yun, P.

P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

S. Barke, M. Trobs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquie, Mol. Phys. 111, 2363 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, Nat. Photonics 6, 687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. DelHaye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. D

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. deVismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouchendira, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 050801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Cop, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Battesti, P. Clade, S. Guellati-Khelifa, C. Schwob, B. Gremaud, F. Nez, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. Yun, B. Z. Tan, W. Deng, and S. H. Gu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental scheme for laser frequency stabilization. DL, diode laser; MG, microwave generator; HM, half-reflection mirror; EC, circuit controller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output from the EOM as a function of RF power. (a) Sidebands appear sequentially as driving power increases. (b) The relative intensity of a single sideband. The solid lines are the theoretical prediction from Bessel function; the filled markers represent experimental measurement data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization spectrum excited by the carrier and the first four negative sidebands by scanning the voltage of the PZT element. Marking format for the spectrum: order of sideband, atomic species, and transitions of hyperfine states. For example, “3Rb85 F=2” indicates third-sideband-induced F=2F transition of Rb85.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between frequency stabilization with (a) the carrier and (b) the fourth-order sideband. Upper trace: polarization spectra; lower trace: frequency stabilization error signals.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E=E0n=0Jn(β)ei((ω+nδ)t+nϕ(t))+C.C.,
E=En=Jn(β)×m=Jm(nE(ω))ei((ω+nδ+mω)t)dω+C.C.,

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