Abstract

We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of optical sensors based on Bloch surface waves propagating at the truncation edge of one-dimensional photonic crystals. The sensors can be simultaneously operated in both a label-free mode, where small refractive index changes at the surface are detected, and a fluorescence mode, where the fluorescence from a novel heptamethyne dye label in the proximity of the surface is collected. The two modes operate in the near-infrared spectral range with the same configuration of the optical reading apparatus. The limit of detection is shown to be smaller than that of equivalent surface plasmon sensors and the fluorescence collection efficiency is such that it can be efficiently analyzed by the same camera sensor used for label-free operation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

K. Toma, M. Vala, P. Adam, J. Homola, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, Opt. Express 21, 10121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1588 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

2010 (2)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baumgaertel, C. von Borczyskowski, and H. Graaf, Nanotechnology 21, 475205 (2010).

2009 (2)

2007 (3)

P. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. Chan, and B. Cunningham, Appl. Opt. 46, 2351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nagao, T. Sakai, K. Kozawa, and T. Urano, Dyes Pigm. 73, 344 (2007).

V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, Anal. Chem. 79, 4729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Biochem. 337, 171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Danz, R. Waldhaeusl, A. Braeuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1970 (1)

Adam, P.

Alieva, E. V.

V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, Anal. Chem. 79, 4729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alvaro, M.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ballarini, M.

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbero, N.

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

Barolo, C.

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

Bashir, R.

Baumgaertel, T.

T. Baumgaertel, C. von Borczyskowski, and H. Graaf, Nanotechnology 21, 475205 (2010).

Block, I.

Braeuer, A.

N. Danz, R. Waldhaeusl, A. Braeuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buscaino, R.

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

Bussolino, F.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L.

Chaudhery, V.

Cunningham, B.

Danz, N.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

N. Danz, R. Waldhaeusl, A. Braeuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzo, N. Danz, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, and A. Sinibaldi, “Limit of detection comparison for surface wave biosensors,” Proc. SPIE (in press).

Descrovi, E.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Digregorio, G.

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dominici, L.

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dorvel, B.

Dostálek, J.

Frascella, F.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

Giessen, H.

Giorgis, F.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gissibl, T.

Graaf, H.

T. Baumgaertel, C. von Borczyskowski, and H. Graaf, Nanotechnology 21, 475205 (2010).

Höfer, B.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

Hong, C.-S.

Jones, S.

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kedenburg, S.

Kick, A.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

Klotzbach, U.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

Knoll, W.

Konopsky, V. N.

V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, Anal. Chem. 79, 4729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

N. Danz, R. Waldhaeusl, A. Braeuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, K.

Y. Nagao, T. Sakai, K. Kozawa, and T. Urano, Dyes Pigm. 73, 344 (2007).

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Biochem. 337, 171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magistris, C.

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

Mandracci, P.

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

Mathias, P.

Mertig, M.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

Michelotti, F.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzo, N. Danz, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, and A. Sinibaldi, “Limit of detection comparison for surface wave biosensors,” Proc. SPIE (in press).

Moi, V.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Munzert, P.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

R. Rizzo, N. Danz, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, and A. Sinibaldi, “Limit of detection comparison for surface wave biosensors,” Proc. SPIE (in press).

Musi, V.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagao, Y.

Y. Nagao, T. Sakai, K. Kozawa, and T. Urano, Dyes Pigm. 73, 344 (2007).

Napione, L.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

Piliarik, M.

Ricciardi, S.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rivolo, P.

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, R.

R. Rizzo, N. Danz, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, and A. Sinibaldi, “Limit of detection comparison for surface wave biosensors,” Proc. SPIE (in press).

Sakai, T.

Y. Nagao, T. Sakai, K. Kozawa, and T. Urano, Dyes Pigm. 73, 344 (2007).

Schmieder, S.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

Schulz, U.

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

Sinibaldi, A.

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

A. Sinibaldi, E. Descrovi, F. Giorgis, L. Dominici, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, N. Danz, and F. Michelotti, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzo, N. Danz, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, and A. Sinibaldi, “Limit of detection comparison for surface wave biosensors,” Proc. SPIE (in press).

Sonntag, F.

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

Toma, K.

Ulrich, R.

Urano, T.

Y. Nagao, T. Sakai, K. Kozawa, and T. Urano, Dyes Pigm. 73, 344 (2007).

Vala, M.

Vieweg, M.

Viscardi, G.

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

Vodkin, L.

von Borczyskowski, C.

T. Baumgaertel, C. von Borczyskowski, and H. Graaf, Nanotechnology 21, 475205 (2010).

Waldhaeusl, R.

N. Danz, R. Waldhaeusl, A. Braeuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Biochem. 337, 171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, Anal. Chem. 79, 4729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Ballarini, F. Frascella, F. Michelotti, G. Digregorio, P. Rivolo, V. Paeder, V. Musi, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 043302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Dyes Pigm. (1)

Y. Nagao, T. Sakai, K. Kozawa, and T. Urano, Dyes Pigm. 73, 344 (2007).

Eng. Life Sci. (1)

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, Eng. Life Sci. 11, 566 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

N. Danz, R. Waldhaeusl, A. Braeuer, and R. Kowarschik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. Baumgaertel, C. von Borczyskowski, and H. Graaf, Nanotechnology 21, 475205 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators B (2)

A. Sinibaldi, N. Danz, E. Descrovi, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, F. Sonntag, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, Sens. Actuators B 174, 292 (2012).

P. Rivolo, F. Michelotti, F. Frascella, G. Digregorio, P. Mandracci, L. Dominici, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, Sens. Actuators B 161, 1046 (2012).

Sensors (1)

F. Frascella, S. Ricciardi, P. Rivolo, V. Moi, F. Giorgis, E. Descrovi, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, N. Danz, L. Napione, M. Alvaro, and F. Bussolino, Sensors 13, 2011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. C. Weast, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 70th ed. (CRC, 1989).

R. Rizzo, N. Danz, F. Michelotti, P. Munzert, and A. Sinibaldi, “Limit of detection comparison for surface wave biosensors,” Proc. SPIE (in press).

N. Barbero, C. Magistris, J. Park, R. Buscaino, C. Barolo, and G. Viscardi, “Microwave-assisted synthesis of near-infrared fluorescent squaraine derivatives,” (submitted).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketches of the label-free (top) and fluorescence (bottom) modes of operation of the sensing platform. (Top) A focused beam at λ0 is used to illuminate the chip under total internal reflection conditions, and the presence of resonance is detected by a CCD sensor. (Bottom) An external laser beam at λEXC is used to excite molecules in the proximity of the chip surface and the emission, strongly coupled to the BSW surface-bound modes, is directed into a narrow angular range and detected by the same CCD sensor. (Left) Sketch of the 1D-PC geometry used in the experiments (not to scale).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dispersion relations ω(β) for the TE- and the TM-polarized BSW sustained in EtOH by the 1D-PC described in the text. For small ω, the dispersions get to the light line in ethanol (Ethanol LL). (Insets) Normalized |E|2 and |H|2 transverse distributions for both modes. The absorption and emission spectra of the Cy7-VG20 dye used in the fluorescence experiments are also shown. The dashed line marks the wavelength λ0 used for the label-free operation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Label-free operation of the sensors at λ0. The solid lines are guides for the eye. For the sake of clarity, the plots are shown in a reduced angular interval with respect to that taken by the CCD. (Left) BSW resonance measured in EtOH. (Right) BSW resonance measured in ddH2O (blue dots), 5 wt. % glucose in ddH2O (black dots), and 10 wt. % glucose in ddH2O (red dots). The fringes in the measurement are due to interference in the glue layer between the TOPAS substrate and the cover slides.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental angular distribution (dots) of the fluorescence intensity collected by the CCD sensor upon excitation of the Cy7-VG20 molecules by the external laser at λEXC. The angular range is the same used for the label-free operation. The theoretical curve (solid purple curve) was calculated according to the procedure described in the text. Both TE- (red) and TM- (blue) polarized spectra are also plotted. (Top inset) Chemical structure of the Cy7-VG20 dye. (Bottom inset) Angular emission spectra calculated for three different absorption levels of Cy7-VG20 (the axes are the same as the main figure).

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