Abstract

We report on the realization of a plasmonic dipole mirror for cold atoms based on a metallic grating coupler. A cloud of atoms is reflected by the repulsive potential generated by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited on a reflection gold grating by a 780 nm laser beam. Experimentally and numerically determined mirror efficiencies are close to 100%. The intensity of SPPs above a real grating coupler and the atomic trajectories, as well as the momentum dispersion of the atom cloud being reflected, are computed. A suggestion is given as to how the plasmonic mirror might serve as an optical atom chip.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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Z.-L. Wang, W.-M. Tang, M. Zhou, and C.-Y. Gao, Chin. Phys. B 22, 073701 (2013).
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2012 (5)

S. T. Koev, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, and V. Aksyuk, Plasmonics 7, 269 (2012).
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J. Zhang, L. Zhang, and W. Xu, J. Phys. D 45, 113001 (2012).
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M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
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D. Bartoszek, J. Fiutowski, T. Dohnalik, and T. Kawalec, Optica Applicata 40, 535 (2010).

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
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2009 (1)

H. Bender, P. W. Courteille, C. Zimmermann, and S. Slama, Appl. Phys. B 96, 275 (2009).
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2005 (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Rychtarik, B. Engeser, H.-C. Nägerl, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Schneble, M. Hasuo, T. Anker, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

W. Seifert, R. Kaiser, A. Aspect, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994).
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1993 (2)

T. Esslinger, M. Weidemüller, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 18, 450 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
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1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
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R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

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S. T. Koev, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, and V. Aksyuk, Plasmonics 7, 269 (2012).
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Aksyuk, V.

S. T. Koev, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, and V. Aksyuk, Plasmonics 7, 269 (2012).
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Alloschery, O.

Anker, T.

D. Schneble, M. Hasuo, T. Anker, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

W. Seifert, R. Kaiser, A. Aspect, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994).
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Bartoszek, D.

D. Bartoszek, J. Fiutowski, T. Dohnalik, and T. Kawalec, Optica Applicata 40, 535 (2010).

Baudon, J.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bender, H.

C. Stehle, H. Bender, C. Zimmermann, D. Kern, M. Fleischer, and S. Slama, Nat. Photonics 5, 494 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bender, P. W. Courteille, C. Zimmermann, and S. Slama, Appl. Phys. B 96, 275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boiteux, S. L.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
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D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
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D. Sarid and W. Challener, Modern Introduction to Surface Plasmons—Theory, Mathematica Modeling, and Applications (Cambridge University, 2010).

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[CrossRef]

Chormaic, S. N.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
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Chu, S.

Cirac, J. I.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
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H. Bender, P. W. Courteille, C. Zimmermann, and S. Slama, Appl. Phys. B 96, 275 (2009).
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Dohnalik, T.

D. Bartoszek, J. Fiutowski, T. Dohnalik, and T. Kawalec, Optica Applicata 40, 535 (2010).

Ducloy, M.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
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Engeser, B.

D. Rychtarik, B. Engeser, H.-C. Nägerl, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173003 (2004).
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Esslinger, T.

Feist, J.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feron, S.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
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Fiutowski, J.

D. Bartoszek, J. Fiutowski, T. Dohnalik, and T. Kawalec, Optica Applicata 40, 535 (2010).

Fleischer, M.

C. Stehle, H. Bender, C. Zimmermann, D. Kern, M. Fleischer, and S. Slama, Nat. Photonics 5, 494 (2011).
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Gao, C.-Y.

Z.-L. Wang, W.-M. Tang, M. Zhou, and C.-Y. Gao, Chin. Phys. B 22, 073701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
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Gaylord, T. K.

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Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
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Gorceix, O.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Grimm, R.

D. Rychtarik, B. Engeser, H.-C. Nägerl, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gullans, M.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haberland, H.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hartl, M.

H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasuo, M.

D. Schneble, M. Hasuo, T. Anker, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

W. Seifert, R. Kaiser, A. Aspect, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kasevich, M. A.

Kawalec, T.

D. Bartoszek, J. Fiutowski, T. Dohnalik, and T. Kawalec, Optica Applicata 40, 535 (2010).

Kern, A. M.

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, Phys. Rev. A 85, 022501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kern, D.

C. Stehle, H. Bender, C. Zimmermann, D. Kern, M. Fleischer, and S. Slama, Nat. Photonics 5, 494 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koev, S. T.

S. T. Koev, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, and V. Aksyuk, Plasmonics 7, 269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H.

S. T. Koev, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, and V. Aksyuk, Plasmonics 7, 269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lorent, V.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, Phys. Rev. A 85, 022501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mathevet, R.

Miniatura, C.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

D. Schneble, M. Hasuo, T. Anker, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Seifert, R. Kaiser, A. Aspect, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Nägerl, H.-C.

D. Rychtarik, B. Engeser, H.-C. Nägerl, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Y. B.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

D. Schneble, M. Hasuo, T. Anker, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Vol. 111.

Reinhardt, J.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ren, P.

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robert, J.

S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, S. L. Boiteux, O. Gorceix, J. Baudon, M. Ducloy, J. Robert, C. Miniatura, S. N. Chormaic, H. Haberland, and V. Lorent, Opt. Commun. 102, 83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rychtarik, D.

D. Rychtarik, B. Engeser, H.-C. Nägerl, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid and W. Challener, Modern Introduction to Surface Plasmons—Theory, Mathematica Modeling, and Applications (Cambridge University, 2010).

Schneble, D.

D. Schneble, M. Hasuo, T. Anker, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzler, H.

H. Gauck, M. Hartl, D. Schneble, H. Schnitzler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, W.

W. Seifert, R. Kaiser, A. Aspect, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Slama, S.

C. Stehle, H. Bender, C. Zimmermann, D. Kern, M. Fleischer, and S. Slama, Nat. Photonics 5, 494 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bender, P. W. Courteille, C. Zimmermann, and S. Slama, Appl. Phys. B 96, 275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stehle, C.

C. Stehle, H. Bender, C. Zimmermann, D. Kern, M. Fleischer, and S. Slama, Nat. Photonics 5, 494 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W.-M.

Z.-L. Wang, W.-M. Tang, M. Zhou, and C.-Y. Gao, Chin. Phys. B 22, 073701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, J. D.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tiecke, T. G.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Wang, W.-M. Tang, M. Zhou, and C.-Y. Gao, Chin. Phys. B 22, 073701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Esslinger, M. Weidemüller, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 18, 450 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

Weiss, D. S.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, and W. Xu, J. Phys. D 45, 113001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, and W. Xu, J. Phys. D 45, 113001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, and W. Xu, J. Phys. D 45, 113001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

Z.-L. Wang, W.-M. Tang, M. Zhou, and C.-Y. Gao, Chin. Phys. B 22, 073701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

C. Stehle, H. Bender, C. Zimmermann, D. Kern, M. Fleischer, and S. Slama, Nat. Photonics 5, 494 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bender, P. W. Courteille, C. Zimmermann, and S. Slama, Appl. Phys. B 96, 275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

M. Gullans, T. G. Tiecke, D. E. Chang, J. Feist, J. D. Thompson, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 235309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Bender, P. W. Courteille, C. Zimmermann, and S. Slama, Appl. Phys. B 96, 275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

Z.-L. Wang, W.-M. Tang, M. Zhou, and C.-Y. Gao, Chin. Phys. B 22, 073701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, and W. Xu, J. Phys. D 45, 113001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Gu, L. Wang, P. Ren, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, O. J. F. Martin, and Q. Gong, Nano Lett. 12, 2488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of experimental setup (not to scale). The TM polarized incident laser beam excites SPPs on a metallic grating coupler when the cloud of atoms reaches the surface. For the sake of clarity, the MOT cloud is shown in its initial height only. The reflected beam is used to test the grating coupler [see Figs. 2(c) and 2(d)]. Inset, top view of the setup. The horizontal arrow pointing to the left denotes shifting of the MOT cloud just before releasing it onto the dipole mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Gold photon–plasmon grating coupler. (a) Optical microscope image under white light illumination; (b) tapping mode AFM topography image of three ridges; (c) angle-dependent zeroth-order reflectivity of the 780 nm laser beam; RCWA calculations for an ideal rectangular profile grating (solid line), modeled real grating (dashed line), and experiment (crosses). A typical CCD image of the cross section of the reflected beam is shown in (d) for the optimum angle of incidence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cold atomic cloud reflected off the plasmonic mirror for various times after the bounce seen along the direction shown in Fig. 1. The detuning Δ, intensity, and power of the laser beam were 2π·9GHz, 3.6W/cm2, and 30 mW, respectively. The duration of the plasmonic mirror was 2 ms and the CCD integration time was 1 ms. Each image is averaged over 40 runs of the experiment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerical simulations of the atom movement in the vicinity of a periodic plasmonic mirror. The optical dipole potential is expressed in units of Γ. The 2.5Γ equipotential line corresponds to an incident beam intensity enhancement by a factor of 36. The inset shows the dispersion of the initial and final velocity in the atomic clouds just before and after the reflection.

Equations (2)

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Udip(r⃗)=λ38π2cΓΔI(r⃗),
k0ϵmϵm+1=k0sinθ±m2πd,

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