Abstract

We present an integrated optical system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging of micrometer-sized samples, while immobilizing and manipulating the samples by means of an optical fiber trap. Optical traps allow us to apply and measure pico-Newton-sized forces, and perform detailed measurements of micrometer-sized dielectric systems in the field of biology. The integrated 3D system can be used as a major tool in the field of biophysics. The trap is built using a tapered optical fiber to enhance the effective numerical aperture of the fiber. The trapping system is mounted on a conventional microscope, in which the two eyepieces’ output ports are used as the paths of an off-axis self-referencing digital holographic microscopy (DHM) setup. The trap is calibrated using a high-speed camera, and trap stiffness is determined through the power spectrum method. The compact setup provides an elegant apparatus for temporally stable DHM for 3D imaging of optically controlled samples. Three-dimensional information and quantitative phase contrast images of the trapped samples are obtained by postprocessing the recorded digital holograms. Experiments were performed on lipids and red blood cells. Quantitative phase contrast images and temporal evolution of optical thickness of trapped samples are presented.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2014 (1)

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 17, 6578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Eom, Y. Takaya, and T. Hayashi, Precis. Eng. 33, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. K. Mohanty and M. W. Berns, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Ferraro, D. Alferi, S. De Nicola, L. De Petrocellis, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Lett. 31, 1405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hansen, I. M. Tolic-Norrelykke, H. Flyvbjerg, and K. Berg-Sorensen, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Taguchi, M. Tanaka, and M. Ikeda, Opt. Rev. 8, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Methods Cell Biol. 55, 129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alferi, D.

Alonzo, C. A.

Anand, A.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Balduzzi, D.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Berg-Sorensen, K.

P. M. Hansen, I. M. Tolic-Norrelykke, H. Flyvbjerg, and K. Berg-Sorensen, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

S. K. Mohanty and M. W. Berns, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chhaniwal, V.

Chhaniwal, V. K.

Cho, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Colomb, T.

Constable, A.

Coppola, G.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cox, M. M.

D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (Worth, 2000).

Cuche, E.

Daneshpanah, M.

De Nicola, S.

De Petrocellis, L.

Depeursinge, C.

Di Caprio, G.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Embrione, V.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

Eom, S. I.

S. I. Eom, Y. Takaya, and T. Hayashi, Precis. Eng. 33, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, D. Alferi, S. De Nicola, L. De Petrocellis, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Lett. 31, 1405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

Flyvbjerg, H.

P. M. Hansen, I. M. Tolic-Norrelykke, H. Flyvbjerg, and K. Berg-Sorensen, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, S.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Galli, A.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, R. C.

Gittes, F.

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Methods Cell Biol. 55, 129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

Grover, S. C.

Gutsche, C.

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haist, T.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. M.

P. M. Hansen, I. M. Tolic-Norrelykke, H. Flyvbjerg, and K. Berg-Sorensen, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

S. I. Eom, Y. Takaya, and T. Hayashi, Precis. Eng. 33, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, J.

J. Hecht, Understanding Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2005).

Heo, J.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hermerschmidt, A.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

K. Taguchi, M. Tanaka, and M. Ikeda, Opt. Rev. 8, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jo, Y.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jueptner, W.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

Jung, J.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kelemen, L.

Keyser, U. F.

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, K. Kim, and Y. Park, in Measurement Techniques for Red Blood Cell Deformability: Recent Advances, Blood Cell—An Overview of Studies in Hematology (INTECH, 2012), pp. 167–194.

Kim, M. K.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, K. Kim, and Y. Park, in Measurement Techniques for Red Blood Cell Deformability: Recent Advances, Blood Cell—An Overview of Studies in Hematology (INTECH, 2012), pp. 167–194.

Kremer, F.

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lo, C.

Lyons, E. R.

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Magistretti, P.

Mann, C. J.

Marquet, P.

Memmolo, P.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Merola, F.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mervis, J.

Miccio, L.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, S. K.

S. K. Mohanty and M. W. Berns, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. L.

D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (Worth, 2000).

Netti, P.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Netti, P. A.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

Osten, W.

M. Daneshpanah, S. Zwick, F. Schaal, M. Warber, B. Javidi, and W. Osten, J. Display Technol. 6, 490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otto, O.

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paciello, A.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Palima, D.

Park, H.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, K. Kim, and Y. Park, in Measurement Techniques for Red Blood Cell Deformability: Recent Advances, Blood Cell—An Overview of Studies in Hematology (INTECH, 2012), pp. 167–194.

Pierattini, G.

Prentiss, M.

Puglisi, R.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rappaz, B.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Schaal, F.

Schmidt, C. F.

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Methods Cell Biol. 55, 129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

Singh, A. S.

Skirtach, A. G.

Sonek, G. J.

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, K.

K. Taguchi, M. Tanaka, and M. Ikeda, Opt. Rev. 8, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takaya, Y.

S. I. Eom, Y. Takaya, and T. Hayashi, Precis. Eng. 33, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Taguchi, M. Tanaka, and M. Ikeda, Opt. Rev. 8, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tolic-Norrelykke, I. M.

P. M. Hansen, I. M. Tolic-Norrelykke, H. Flyvbjerg, and K. Berg-Sorensen, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ventre, M.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Warber, M.

M. Daneshpanah, S. Zwick, F. Schaal, M. Warber, B. Javidi, and W. Osten, J. Display Technol. 6, 490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Zarinetchi, F.

Zwick, S.

M. Daneshpanah, S. Zwick, F. Schaal, M. Warber, B. Javidi, and W. Osten, J. Display Technol. 6, 490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

P. M. Hansen, I. M. Tolic-Norrelykke, H. Flyvbjerg, and K. Berg-Sorensen, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. K. Mohanty and M. W. Berns, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Opt. A (1)

S. Zwick, T. Haist, Y. Miyamoto, L. He, M. Warber, A. Hermerschmidt, and W. Osten, J. Opt. A 11, 034011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, F. Merola, S. Fusco, V. Embrione, A. Paciello, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 14, 1129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, G. Di Caprio, A. Galli, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, G. Coppola, P. Netti, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 13, 4512 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Methods Cell Biol. (1)

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Methods Cell Biol. 55, 129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Taguchi, M. Tanaka, and M. Ikeda, Opt. Rev. 8, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

S. I. Eom, Y. Takaya, and T. Hayashi, Precis. Eng. 33, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, C. Gutsche, F. Kremer, and U. F. Keyser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 023710 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, Sensors 13, 4170 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Y. Kim, K. Kim, and Y. Park, in Measurement Techniques for Red Blood Cell Deformability: Recent Advances, Blood Cell—An Overview of Studies in Hematology (INTECH, 2012), pp. 167–194.

D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (Worth, 2000).

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

J. Hecht, Understanding Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Integrated DHM and OFT setup. MO, microscope objective; DHM laser, laser for digital holographic microscopy; DM, dichroic mirror; S, sample; C, condenser; BM, binocular module of microscope; M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; 2θ, angle of tapered fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power spectrum of a trapped polystyrene particle at 200 mW laser output power in (a) x and (b) y directions. fc in the inset is the corner frequency.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stretching of POPC lipid membrane in different directions (shown by arrows) by OFT tip. Scale bar in image (a) is 10 μm. Images are obtained by conventional microscopy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Trapped RBC: (a), (b), (c) lateral movement of the stage while the RBC remained trapped, (d) the intensity, and (e) the phase pattern of the hologram, (f) the filtered phase difference distribution, (g) the reconstructed 2D thickness profile of the field of view, and (h) the 2D and (i) 3D thickness profiles of the selected region of interest of (g).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temporal variations of a trapped RBC thickness, at the points A, B, and C shown in Fig. 4(h).

Equations (1)

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NAi=R×NA0,

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