Abstract

This Letter details a theoretical investigation of self-absorption within an upconverter (UC) material, consisting of trivalent erbium (Er3+)-doped hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride (β-NaYF4) and its implications on two experimental situations: the case of a quantum yield measurement, and on the effective performance in a UC-enhanced photovoltaic (PV) device. The study demonstrates that an optimization of the thickness is essential in order to reduce the effect of self-absorption and maximize the possible additional photocurrent that could be harvested. It also has been found that the external photoluminescence quantum yield (ePLQY) measured through an integrating sphere may result in an underestimation with respect to the performance that the UC material could achieve in a UC-PV device. Finally, it has been found the optimal thickness and the molar concentration of Er3+ ions are inversely proportional, suggesting that an optimal number (1.32.9·1017) of Er3+ ions should be contained within the UC layer.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2329 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. C. Hirst and N. J. Ekins-Daukes, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 19, 286 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
  6. J. A. Briggs, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 124509 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Johnson, S. Woo, and G. J. Conibeer, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4, 799 (2014).
  8. S. K. MacDougall, A. Ivaturi, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, and B. S. Richards, Opt. Express 20, A879 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).
  11. A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Wermuth, T. Riedener, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4369 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).
  18. K. Q. Le and S. John, Opt. Express 22, A1 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (3)

C. M. Johnson, S. Woo, and G. J. Conibeer, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4, 799 (2014).

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Le and S. John, Opt. Express 22, A1 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (4)

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Briggs, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 124509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

L. C. Hirst and N. J. Ekins-Daukes, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 19, 286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).

2009 (1)

P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).

2006 (1)

B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Wermuth, T. Riedener, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Almonacid, G.

P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).

Atre, A. C.

J. A. Briggs, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 124509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).

Baldacchini, G.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baluschev, S.

P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T.

T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).

Batentschuk, M.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boccolini, A.

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Borchardt, R.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, J. A.

J. A. Briggs, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 124509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Conibeer, G. J.

C. M. Johnson, S. Woo, and G. J. Conibeer, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4, 799 (2014).

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Briggs, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 124509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

L. C. Hirst and N. J. Ekins-Daukes, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 19, 286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Faoro, R.

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Favilla, E.

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

García-Revilla, S.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, P.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).

Güdel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wermuth, T. Riedener, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, L. C.

L. C. Hirst and N. J. Ekins-Daukes, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 19, 286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ivaturi, A.

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. MacDougall, A. Ivaturi, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, and B. S. Richards, Opt. Express 20, A879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

Johnson, C. M.

C. M. Johnson, S. Woo, and G. J. Conibeer, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4, 799 (2014).

Keivanidis, P. E.

P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. MacDougall, A. Ivaturi, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, and B. S. Richards, Opt. Express 20, A879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le, K. Q.

Lieser, G.

P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacDougall, S. K.

MacDougall, S. K. W.

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marques-Hueso, J.

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. MacDougall, A. Ivaturi, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, and B. S. Richards, Opt. Express 20, A879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Rodríguez, R.

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, E.

P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).

Orlovskii, Y. V.

T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).

Pérez-Higueras, P.

P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, K.

T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Quintanilla, M.

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. MacDougall, A. Ivaturi, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, and B. S. Richards, Opt. Express 20, A879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).

B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riedener, T.

M. Wermuth, T. Riedener, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scheiner, S.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, P.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Seemann, B.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Veronesi, S.

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, P. G.

P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).

Wang, Y.

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wermuth, M.

M. Wermuth, T. Riedener, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S.

C. M. Johnson, S. Woo, and G. J. Conibeer, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4, 799 (2014).

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. E. Keivanidis, S. Baluschev, G. Lieser, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Chem. 10, 2316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

C. M. Johnson, S. Woo, and G. J. Conibeer, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4, 799 (2014).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Briggs, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 124509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccolini, R. Faoro, E. Favilla, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ivaturi, S. K. W. MacDougall, R. Martín-Rodríguez, M. Quintanilla, J. Marques-Hueso, K. W. Krämer, A. Meijerink, and B. S. Richards, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 013505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

T. Basiev, Y. V. Orlovskii, K. Pukhov, and F. Auzel, Laser Phys. 7, 1139 (1997).

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Wondraczek, M. Batentschuk, M. Schmidt, R. Borchardt, S. Scheiner, B. Seemann, P. Schweizer, and C. J. Brabec, Nat. Commun. 4, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wermuth, T. Riedener, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. (1)

L. C. Hirst and N. J. Ekins-Daukes, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 19, 286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (1)

P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1810 (2011).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).

B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccolini, J. Marques-Hueso, D. Chen, Y. Wang, and B. S. Richards, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122, 8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

iPLQY data taken from [15] plotted together with the fitted curves defined by Eq. (2) for each Er3+ molar concentration: (a) shows the accuracy of the fit for pump power densities up to 103Wm2, while (b) shows the extrapolated values up to 106Wm2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two different experimental situations have been considered. In the first case, the UC sample is excited by a collimated pump beam inside an integrating sphere (not shown for clarity) which collects the UC luminescence coming out from both front and back side. In the second case, the emission is considered when attached on the back side of a bifacial solar cell and a 100% reflector covering the other side of the UC layer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated ePLQY using Eq. (1) for the NaYF4:Er3+ (25%) as a function of thickness, for three different pump power densities in the two configurations described in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maximum ePLQY achievable (a) and its corresponding optimal thickness (b) dependence with Er3+ molar concentration referring to 103Wm2 pump power density in the two different configurations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fitted Parameters A and B from Data in [15] and iPLQY Values with Their Corresponding Log–Log Slope at Different Power Densities (150Wm2, 970Wm2, and 106Wm2) for Different Er3+ Doping Levels

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ePLQY=i=1N[pa(i)(L)·iPLQY(P,i)·pt(i)(L)].
iPLQY=A·Pin1+B·Pin,

Metrics