Abstract

We present a semi-analytical method for computing the electromagnetic field in and around 3D nanoparticles (NP) of complex shape and demonstrate its power via concrete examples of plasmonic NPs that have nonsymmetrical shapes and surface areas with very small radii of curvature. In particular, we show the three axial resonances of a 3D cashew-nut and the broadband response of peanut-shell NPs. The method employs the source-model technique along with a newly developed intricate source distributing algorithm based on the surface curvature. The method is simple and can outperform finite-difference time domain and finite-element-based software tools in both its efficiency and accuracy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. N. Engheta, Metamaterials Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley-Interscience, 2006).
  6. R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1968 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. M. I. Stockman, Nat. Photonics 2, 327 (2008).
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  11. A. M. Michaels, M. Nirmal, and L. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 9932 (1999).
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  12. B. Nikoobakht, J. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Chem. Phys. Lett. 366, 17 (2002).
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  19. I. D. Mayergoyz, D. R. Fredkin, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 155412 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998), Chap. 5.2–5.4, pp. 136–150.
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    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, Comput. Phys. Commun. 68, 331 (1991).
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  24. A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, and J. K. White, J. Comput. Phys. 238, 337 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Hochman and Y. Leviatan, Opt. Express 17, 13561 (2009).
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  26. R. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley-Interscience, 2001).
  27. Supporting online material, http://apr.eew.technion.ac.il/files/2012/06/SOM.pdf .
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    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Demmerle and W. Wiesbeck, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, and J. K. White, J. Comput. Phys. 238, 337 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Nano Lett. 10, 1405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hochman and Y. Leviatan, Opt. Express 17, 13561 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. I. Stockman, Nat. Photonics 2, 327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Mayergoyz, D. R. Fredkin, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 155412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Fredkin and I. D. Mayergoyz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Nikoobakht, J. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Chem. Phys. Lett. 366, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. Martin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 1719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. M. Michaels, M. Nirmal, and L. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 9932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Wriedt, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 15, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Demmerle and W. Wiesbeck, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. J. García de Abajo and J. Aizpurua, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, Comput. Phys. Commun. 68, 331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1722 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

F. J. García de Abajo and J. Aizpurua, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P.

P. Banerjee and R. Butterfield, Boundary Element Methods in Engineering Science (McGraw-Hill, 1981).

Barton, J.

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berkovitch, N.

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Nano Lett. 10, 1405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boag, A.

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, Comput. Phys. Commun. 68, 331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, Comput. Phys. Commun. 68, 331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1722 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1722 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998), Chap. 5.2–5.4, pp. 136–150.

Boroditsky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L.

A. M. Michaels, M. Nirmal, and L. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 9932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Butterfield, R.

P. Banerjee and R. Butterfield, Boundary Element Methods in Engineering Science (McGraw-Hill, 1981).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Demmerle, F.

F. Demmerle and W. Wiesbeck, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B.

Drezek, R.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

El-Sayed, M. A.

B. Nikoobakht, J. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Chem. Phys. Lett. 366, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

N. Engheta, Metamaterials Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley-Interscience, 2006).

Evans, P.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P. J.

Fredkin, D. R.

I. D. Mayergoyz, D. R. Fredkin, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 155412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Fredkin and I. D. Mayergoyz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo and J. Aizpurua, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Nano Lett. 10, 1405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

Harrington, R.

R. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley-Interscience, 2001).

Hendren, W.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, L.

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

Hochman, A.

A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, and J. K. White, J. Comput. Phys. 238, 337 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hochman and Y. Leviatan, Opt. Express 17, 13561 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998), Chap. 5.2–5.4, pp. 136–150.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kottmann, J. P.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. Martin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 1719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kühnel, W.

W. Kühnel, Differential Geometry: Curves—Surfaces—Manifolds (American Mathematical Society, 2002).

Lee, M.-H.

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

Leviatan, Y.

A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, and J. K. White, J. Comput. Phys. 238, 337 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hochman and Y. Leviatan, Opt. Express 17, 13561 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, Comput. Phys. Commun. 68, 331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1722 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

Loo, C.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, A.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. Martin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 1719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mayergoyz, I. D.

I. D. Mayergoyz, D. R. Fredkin, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 155412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Fredkin and I. D. Mayergoyz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, A. M.

A. M. Michaels, M. Nirmal, and L. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 9932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, A.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikoobakht, B.

B. Nikoobakht, J. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Chem. Phys. Lett. 366, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nirmal, M.

A. M. Michaels, M. Nirmal, and L. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 9932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Nano Lett. 10, 1405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, Nat. Photonics 2, 327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

Wang, J.

B. Nikoobakht, J. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Chem. Phys. Lett. 366, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

White, J. K.

A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, and J. K. White, J. Comput. Phys. 238, 337 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wiesbeck, W.

F. Demmerle and W. Wiesbeck, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wriedt, T.

T. Wriedt, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 15, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A.

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

I. D. Mayergoyz, D. R. Fredkin, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 155412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Nikoobakht, J. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, Chem. Phys. Lett. 366, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, Comput. Phys. Commun. 68, 331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (3)

Y. Leviatan, A. Boag, and A. Boag, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1722 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Demmerle and W. Wiesbeck, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. Martin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 1719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. M. Michaels, M. Nirmal, and L. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 9932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, and J. K. White, J. Comput. Phys. 238, 337 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Nano Lett. 5, 709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, Nano Lett. 10, 1405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. I. Stockman, Nat. Photonics 2, 327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (1)

T. Wriedt, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 15, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

I. D. Mayergoyz, D. R. Fredkin, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 72, 155412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García de Abajo and J. Aizpurua, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. Mishra, and S. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. Wurtz, A. Zayats, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Fredkin and I. D. Mayergoyz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. (1)

A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer. Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).

Other (6)

N. Engheta, Metamaterials Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley-Interscience, 2006).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998), Chap. 5.2–5.4, pp. 136–150.

R. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (Wiley-Interscience, 2001).

Supporting online material, http://apr.eew.technion.ac.il/files/2012/06/SOM.pdf .

W. Kühnel, Differential Geometry: Curves—Surfaces—Manifolds (American Mathematical Society, 2002).

P. Banerjee and R. Butterfield, Boundary Element Methods in Engineering Science (McGraw-Hill, 1981).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Distribution of fictitious sources for different types of NPs. (a) The cashew-nut particle (b) The peanut-shell particle. (c) and (d) Distribution of sources for (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity distribution of the scattered electric field calculated at the dipole resonance frequency and enhancement spectra of the cashew-nut particle. (a) XY plane (z=0) distribution for x-polarized E-field. (b) XY plane distribution for y-polarized E-field. (c) XZ plane distribution for z-polarized (out of plane) E-field. (d) and (f) Associated enhancement spectra for (a), (b), and (c), respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resonance and field enhancement as a function of the NP concavity, defined as the diameter of the concave (inner) region in the (z=0) plane. (a) Resonance wavelength and (b) Max E-field enhancement. (c) NPs with different concavity parameter. An increased concavity corresponds to larger inner diameter d.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity distribution of the scattered E-field calculated at the dipole resonance frequency, and spectral responses for the peanut-shell particle. (a) XY plane (z=0) distribution for x-polarized E-field. (b) Enhancement spectrum and extinction cross-section.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of the Performance of BEM and SMT for Scattering by a Plasmonic Spheroida

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