Abstract

The capability to deliver light to specific locations within the brain using optogenetic tools has opened up new possibilities in the field of neural interfacing. In this context, optical fibers are commonly inserted into the brain to activate or mute neurons using photosensitive proteins. While chronic optogenetic stimulation studies are just beginning to emerge, knowledge gathered in connection with electrophysiological implants suggests that the mechanical mismatch of conventional optical fibers and the cortical tissue may be a significant contributor to neuroinflammatory response. Here, we present the design and fabrication of physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive optical fibers made of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that may mitigate this problem. Produced by a one-step wet-spinning process, the fibers display a tensile storage modulus E of 7000MPa in the dry state at 25°C and can thus readily be inserted into cortical tissue. Exposure to water causes a drastic reduction of E to 35MPa on account of modest swelling with the water. The optical properties at 470 and 590 were comparable with losses of 0.7±0.04dB/cm at 470 nm and 0.6±0.1dB/cm at 590 nm in the dry state and 1.1±0.1dB/cm at 470 nm and 0.9±0.3dB/cm at 590 nm in the wet state. The dry end of a partially switched fiber with a length of 10 cm was coupled with a light-emitting diode with an output of 10.1 mW to deliver light with a power density of >500mW/cm2 from the wet end, which is more than sufficient to stimulate neurons in vivo. Thus, even without a low-refractive index cladding, the physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive optical fibers presented here appear to be a very useful new tool for future optogenetic studies.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

K. A. Potter, M. Jorfi, K. T. Householder, E. J. Foster, C. Weder, and J. R. Capadona, Acta Biomater. 10, 2209 (2014).

2013 (1)

M. Jorfi, M. N. Roberts, E. J. Foster, and C. Weder, ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 5, 1517 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (8)

A. R. Nectow, K. G. Marra, and D. L. Kaplan, Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 18, 40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Zorzos, J. Scholvin, E. S. Boyden, and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Lett. 37, 4841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sparta, A. M. Stamatakis, J. L. Phillips, N. Hovelso, R. van Zessen, and G. D. Stuber, Nat. Protocols 7, 12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ung and B. R. Arenkiel, J. Vis. Exp. 68, e50004 (2012).

J. G. Bernstein, P. A. Garrity, and E. S. Boyden, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 22, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gerits, R. Farivar, B. R. Rosen, L. L. Wald, E. S. Boyden, and W. Vanduffel, Curr. Biol. 22, 1722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ware, D. Simon, D. E. Arreaga-Salas, J. Reeder, R. Rennaker, E. W. Keefer, and W. Voit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

J. P. Harris, A. E. Hess, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, C. A. Zorman, D. J. Tyler, and J. R. Capadona, J. Neural Eng. 8, 040610 (2011).

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 8, 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. T. LaLumiere, Brain Stimulat. 4, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Hsu, C. Weder, and S. J. Rowan, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 2812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bernstein and E. S. Boyden, Trends Cogn. Sci. 15, 592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Shanmuganathan, J. R. Capadona, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Science 324, 354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, D. J. Tyler, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Science 319, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Polikov, P. A. Tresco, and W. M. Reichert, J. Neurosci. Methods 148, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. B. Schwartz, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. A. L. Nicolelis, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ajello, E. M.

R. A. Janssen, P. I. Lee, and E. M. Ajello, “Preparation of stable polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel contact lens,” U.S. patent5,174,929 (December29, 1992).

Arenkiel, B. R.

K. Ung and B. R. Arenkiel, J. Vis. Exp. 68, e50004 (2012).

Arreaga-Salas, D. E.

T. Ware, D. Simon, D. E. Arreaga-Salas, J. Reeder, R. Rennaker, E. W. Keefer, and W. Voit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bamberg, E.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, J. G.

J. G. Bernstein, P. A. Garrity, and E. S. Boyden, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 22, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bernstein and E. S. Boyden, Trends Cogn. Sci. 15, 592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyden, E. S.

J. G. Bernstein, P. A. Garrity, and E. S. Boyden, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 22, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gerits, R. Farivar, B. R. Rosen, L. L. Wald, E. S. Boyden, and W. Vanduffel, Curr. Biol. 22, 1722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Zorzos, J. Scholvin, E. S. Boyden, and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Lett. 37, 4841 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bernstein and E. S. Boyden, Trends Cogn. Sci. 15, 592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capadona, J. R.

K. A. Potter, M. Jorfi, K. T. Householder, E. J. Foster, C. Weder, and J. R. Capadona, Acta Biomater. 10, 2209 (2014).

J. P. Harris, A. E. Hess, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, C. A. Zorman, D. J. Tyler, and J. R. Capadona, J. Neural Eng. 8, 040610 (2011).

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Shanmuganathan, J. R. Capadona, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, D. J. Tyler, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Science 319, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hess, J. Dunning, J. Harris, J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, D. J. Tyler, and C. A. Zorman, in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 224–227.

Cheng, J. B.

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deisseroth, K.

K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 8, 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Science 324, 354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, C.

Dunning, J.

A. Hess, J. Dunning, J. Harris, J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, D. J. Tyler, and C. A. Zorman, in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 224–227.

Dupuis, A.

Farivar, R.

A. Gerits, R. Farivar, B. R. Rosen, L. L. Wald, E. S. Boyden, and W. Vanduffel, Curr. Biol. 22, 1722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

Foster, E. J.

K. A. Potter, M. Jorfi, K. T. Householder, E. J. Foster, C. Weder, and J. R. Capadona, Acta Biomater. 10, 2209 (2014).

M. Jorfi, M. N. Roberts, E. J. Foster, and C. Weder, ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 5, 1517 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Garrity, P. A.

J. G. Bernstein, P. A. Garrity, and E. S. Boyden, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 22, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gerits, A.

A. Gerits, R. Farivar, B. R. Rosen, L. L. Wald, E. S. Boyden, and W. Vanduffel, Curr. Biol. 22, 1722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Gradinaru, V.

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Science 324, 354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, N.

Harris, J.

A. Hess, J. Dunning, J. Harris, J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, D. J. Tyler, and C. A. Zorman, in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 224–227.

Harris, J. P.

J. P. Harris, A. E. Hess, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, C. A. Zorman, D. J. Tyler, and J. R. Capadona, J. Neural Eng. 8, 040610 (2011).

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Healy, B. C.

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, J. M.

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Science 324, 354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hess, A.

A. Hess, J. Dunning, J. Harris, J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, D. J. Tyler, and C. A. Zorman, in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 224–227.

Hess, A. E.

J. P. Harris, A. E. Hess, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, C. A. Zorman, D. J. Tyler, and J. R. Capadona, J. Neural Eng. 8, 040610 (2011).

Householder, K. T.

K. A. Potter, M. Jorfi, K. T. Householder, E. J. Foster, C. Weder, and J. R. Capadona, Acta Biomater. 10, 2209 (2014).

Hovelso, N.

D. R. Sparta, A. M. Stamatakis, J. L. Phillips, N. Hovelso, R. van Zessen, and G. D. Stuber, Nat. Protocols 7, 12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, L.

L. Hsu, C. Weder, and S. J. Rowan, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 2812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A.

R. A. Janssen, P. I. Lee, and E. M. Ajello, “Preparation of stable polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel contact lens,” U.S. patent5,174,929 (December29, 1992).

Jorfi, M.

K. A. Potter, M. Jorfi, K. T. Householder, E. J. Foster, C. Weder, and J. R. Capadona, Acta Biomater. 10, 2209 (2014).

M. Jorfi, M. N. Roberts, E. J. Foster, and C. Weder, ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 5, 1517 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L.

A. R. Nectow, K. G. Marra, and D. L. Kaplan, Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 18, 40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keefer, E. W.

T. Ware, D. Simon, D. E. Arreaga-Salas, J. Reeder, R. Rennaker, E. W. Keefer, and W. Voit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

LaLumiere, R. T.

R. T. LaLumiere, Brain Stimulat. 4, 1 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. I.

R. A. Janssen, P. I. Lee, and E. M. Ajello, “Preparation of stable polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel contact lens,” U.S. patent5,174,929 (December29, 1992).

Li, Y. L.

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. Y.

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marra, K. G.

A. R. Nectow, K. G. Marra, and D. L. Kaplan, Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 18, 40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. H.

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mogri, M.

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Science 324, 354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, G.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nectow, A. R.

A. R. Nectow, K. G. Marra, and D. L. Kaplan, Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 18, 40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nicolelis, M. A. L.

M. A. L. Nicolelis, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. Q.

Y. Lu, Y. L. Li, J. Q. Pan, P. F. Wei, N. Liu, B. F. Wu, J. B. Cheng, C. Y. Lu, and L. P. Wang, Biomaterials 33, 378 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. L.

D. R. Sparta, A. M. Stamatakis, J. L. Phillips, N. Hovelso, R. van Zessen, and G. D. Stuber, Nat. Protocols 7, 12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Polikov, V. S.

V. S. Polikov, P. A. Tresco, and W. M. Reichert, J. Neurosci. Methods 148, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Potter, K. A.

K. A. Potter, M. Jorfi, K. T. Householder, E. J. Foster, C. Weder, and J. R. Capadona, Acta Biomater. 10, 2209 (2014).

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, in Measurements on Optical Devices, IEE Colloquium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 2/1–2/7.

Reeder, J.

T. Ware, D. Simon, D. E. Arreaga-Salas, J. Reeder, R. Rennaker, E. W. Keefer, and W. Voit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, W. M.

V. S. Polikov, P. A. Tresco, and W. M. Reichert, J. Neurosci. Methods 148, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rennaker, R.

T. Ware, D. Simon, D. E. Arreaga-Salas, J. Reeder, R. Rennaker, E. W. Keefer, and W. Voit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M. N.

M. Jorfi, M. N. Roberts, E. J. Foster, and C. Weder, ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 5, 1517 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, B. R.

A. Gerits, R. Farivar, B. R. Rosen, L. L. Wald, E. S. Boyden, and W. Vanduffel, Curr. Biol. 22, 1722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, S. J.

J. P. Harris, A. E. Hess, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, C. A. Zorman, D. J. Tyler, and J. R. Capadona, J. Neural Eng. 8, 040610 (2011).

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Hsu, C. Weder, and S. J. Rowan, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 2812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Shanmuganathan, J. R. Capadona, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, D. J. Tyler, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Science 319, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hess, J. Dunning, J. Harris, J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, D. J. Tyler, and C. A. Zorman, in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 224–227.

Scholvin, J.

Schwartz, A. B.

A. B. Schwartz, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shanmuganathan, K.

J. P. Harris, J. R. Capadona, R. H. Miller, B. C. Healy, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, and D. J. Tyler, J. Neural Eng. 8, 066011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Shanmuganathan, J. R. Capadona, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 212 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, D. J. Tyler, S. J. Rowan, and C. Weder, Science 319, 1370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hess, J. Dunning, J. Harris, J. R. Capadona, K. Shanmuganathan, S. J. Rowan, C. Weder, D. J. Tyler, and C. A. Zorman, in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 224–227.

Simon, D.

T. Ware, D. Simon, D. E. Arreaga-Salas, J. Reeder, R. Rennaker, E. W. Keefer, and W. Voit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3470 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Sparta, D. R.

D. R. Sparta, A. M. Stamatakis, J. L. Phillips, N. Hovelso, R. van Zessen, and G. D. Stuber, Nat. Protocols 7, 12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stamatakis, A. M.

D. R. Sparta, A. M. Stamatakis, J. L. Phillips, N. Hovelso, R. van Zessen, and G. D. Stuber, Nat. Protocols 7, 12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stuber, G. D.

D. R. Sparta, A. M. Stamatakis, J. L. Phillips, N. Hovelso, R. van Zessen, and G. D. Stuber, Nat. Protocols 7, 12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K. R.

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Science 324, 354 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tresco, P. A.

V. S. Polikov, P. A. Tresco, and W. M. Reichert, J. Neurosci. Methods 148, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, D. J.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of the various processing steps used to fabricate physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive optical fibers based on PVA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b) Optical microscopic images of a PVA fiber. Cross-polarized optical micrographs of a PVA fiber arranged with its long axis oriented at angles of (c) 45° and (d) 0° relative to the analyzer; the orientations of the polarizers (solid arrows) and samples (dashed arrows) are also shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tensile storage modulus (E) of an adaptive PVA fiber and a commercial single-mode (SM) optical fiber (S405-XP, ThorLabs) as a function of immersion time in water at 37°C. Water was added after 3.5 min, as indicated in the figure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical losses of PVA optical fibers in the dry and wet state as function of fiber length. Data are shown for 470 nm (dry, solid squares; wet, open squares) and 590 nm (dry, solid circles; wet, open circles) incident light and represent N=5 samples±standard deviation. Solid (470 nm) and dashed (590 nm) lines are least square fits. The inset shows a photograph of a fiber transmitting 590 nm light in the dry, rigid state.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic representation of the cell used to operate optical fibers in the dry, rigid and water-swollen, soft state. Photographs of a 10 cm long PVA fiber transmitting 470 nm light in the (b) dry, rigid state and (c) after adding water with a temperature of 25°C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Changes of transmitted power (solid squares) and power density (open circles) over time as a 10 cm long PVA fiber transporting 470 nm light from a 10.1 mW fiber-coupled high-power LED is switched from the dry, rigid state to the water-swollen, soft state (room temperature) and back.

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