Abstract

We demonstrate a phase-stabilized remote distribution of 100.04 GHz millimeter wave signal over 60 km optical fiber. The phase error of the remote millimeter wave signal induced by fiber transmission delay variations is detected by dual-heterodyne phase error transfer and corrected with a feedback system based on a fast response acousto-optic frequency shifter. The phase noise within the bandwidth of 300 Hz is effectively suppressed; thus, the fast transmission delay variations can be compensated. The residual phase noise of the remote 100.04 GHz signal reaches 56dBc/Hz at 1 Hz frequency offset from the carrier, and long-term stability of 1.6×1016 at 1000 s averaging time is achieved. The fast phase-noise-correcting capability is evaluated by vibrating part of the transmission fiber link.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2012

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

2011

2010

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, and C. Chardonnet, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, T. Gotoh, and M. Hosokawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tarenghi, Astrophys. Space Sci. 313, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. R. Bolton, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 21, 527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Express 14, 12134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2000

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

AlBanna, S.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addrio, in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 201–204.

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, and C. Chardonnet, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asari, K.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Bergquist, J. C.

Bize, S.

Bolton, P. R.

P. R. Bolton, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 21, 527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, M.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, and C. Chardonnet, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. L.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Chen, Y. F.

Cliche, J.

J. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crone, G.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D’Addario, L.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

D’Addrio, L.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addrio, in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 201–204.

Diddams, S. A.

Dong, Y.

Doyle, D.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, D. T.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

Feng, Y. Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, T. Gotoh, and M. Hosokawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gageur, U.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Gill, P.

Gotoh, T.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, T. Gotoh, and M. Hosokawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hara, T.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heras, A. M.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L. W.

Holman, K. W.

Hosokawa, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, T. Gotoh, and M. Hosokawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Huang, S.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, C.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Kawanishi, T.

H. Kiuchi and T. Kawanishi, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Kawano, N.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, A. R.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

Kitching, J.

Kiuchi, H.

H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kiuchi and T. Kawanishi, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Kuji, S.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, T. Gotoh, and M. Hosokawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

Li, T. C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, and C. Chardonnet, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, and C. Chardonnet, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

Metcalfe, L.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Nagano, S.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, Opt. Lett. 34, 2949 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishio, M.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ott, S.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Passvogel, T.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Payne, J. M.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

Peng, J. L.

Petropoulos, P.

Pilbratt, G. L.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Riedinger, J. R.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

Sato, K.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schillue, B.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

Schmidt, M.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

Shillue, B.

J. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addrio, in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 201–204.

Slavík, R.

Sun, D.

Tarenghi, M.

M. Tarenghi, Astrophys. Space Sci. 313, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tjoelker, R. L.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Wang, L. J.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Wang, S.

Xia, Z.

Xie, W.

Ye, J.

Yi, L.

Zhang, J. W.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Zhu, X.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Appl. Phys. B

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, and C. Chardonnet, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci.

M. Tarenghi, Astrophys. Space Sci. 313, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Control Syst. Mag.

J. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, T. Gotoh, and M. Hosokawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

H. Kiuchi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57, 168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mod. Phys. B

P. R. Bolton, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 21, 527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Schillue, Proc. SPIE 3357, 143 (1998).

Sci. Rep.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).

Other

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addrio, in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 201–204.

H. Kiuchi and T. Kawanishi, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for stable dissemination millimeter-wave signal system. OFCG, optical frequency comb generator; PMC, polarization-maintaining coupler; PLL, phase-locked loop; OC, optical coupler; AOFS, acousto-optic frequency shifter; IF, intermediate frequency; PM-AWG, polarization maintaining arrayed waveguide grating; VCO, voltage controlled oscillator; EDFA, erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier; DHPT, dual-heterodyne phase error transfer; PD, photo-detector; PFD, digital phase and frequency detector; PC, polarization controller; SMF, single-mode fiber; DCF, dispersion compensating fiber; M, mixer; C, circulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Residual phase noise of remote 100.04 GHz signal is evaluated without vibration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Residual phase noise of remote 100.04 GHz signal is evaluated with vibration (vibrational frequency 6 Hz).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Allan deviation with vibration and without vibration.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Imm(t)=cos[(ω2ω1+ωIF2)t+φv(t)+φp(t)],
φp(t)=[(ω2+ωIF1+ωIF2)τb(t)(ω1+ωIF1)τa(t)](ω2ω1+ωIF2)τtrans(t).
VΔab(t)=cos{ωIF2t+φv(t)[(ω2+ωIF1+ωIF2)τb(t)(ω1+ωIF1)τa(t)]}.
VΔtrans(t)=cos{ωIF2t(ω2+ωIF1+ωIF2)[τb(t)+2τtrans(t)]+(ω1+ωIF1)[τa(t)+2τtrans(t)]+φv(t)}.
V70MHz(t)=cos[(2ωIF2ωRb)t+2φv(t)φRb2(ω2+ωIF1+ωIF2)[τb(t)+τtrans(t)]+2(ω1+ωIF1)[τa(t)+τtrans(t)],
Eerror(t)=φRb17{2φv(t)φRb+2(ω1+ωIF1)[τa(t)+τtrans(t)]2(ω2+ωIF1+ωIF2)[τb(t)+τtrans(t)]}.
Imm(t)=cos[(ω2ω1+ωIF2)t+4φRb].

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