Abstract

We propose an adaptive optics compensation scheme to simultaneously compensate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence. A Gaussian beam on one polarization is used to probe the turbulence-induced wavefront distortions and derive the correction pattern for compensating the OAM beams on the orthogonal polarization. By using this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous compensation of multiple OAM beams, each carrying a 100Gbit/s data channel through emulated atmospheric turbulence. The experimental results indicate that the correction pattern obtained from the Gaussian probe beam could be used to simultaneously compensate multiple turbulence-distorted OAM beams with different orders. It is found that the turbulence-induced crosstalk effects on neighboring modes are efficiently reduced by 12.5 dB, and the system power penalty is improved by 11 dB after compensation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Paterson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 7, 55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

1997 (1)

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Anguita, J. A.

Azucena, O.

Baker, K. L.

Bao, C.

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Barnett, S.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, K. M.

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rodenburg, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, D. J. Robertson, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 37, 3735 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Burke, D.

Cai, X.

Chandrasekaran, N.

Courtial, J.

Crawford, J.

Dainty, C.

Dennis, M. R.

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 7, 55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, N.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Dolinar, S. J.

Erkmen, B.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Erkmen, B. I.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flath, L. M.

Fontaine, N. K.

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gavel, D.

Geisler, D. J.

Gibson, G.

Huang, C.

Huang, H.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, H. Huang, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, and H. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 26099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Inoue, T.

Kartz, M. W.

Klein, L.

Koyama, Y.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krulevitch, P.

Kunimori, H.

Lavery, M. P. J.

Leach, J.

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 7, 55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Malik, M.

Mirhosseini, M.

Moloney, J.

Murphy, K.

Neifeld, M.

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Neifeld, M. A.

O’Sullivan, M. N.

Olivier, S. S.

Olsen, J.

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).

Peleg, A.

Phillips, R.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Polynkin, P.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Rhoadarmer, T.

Robertson, D. J.

Rodenburg, B.

Rogawski, D.

Scott, R. P.

Shapiro, J.

Shapiro, J. H.

N. Chandrasekaran and J. H. Shapiro, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1075 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Shoji, Y.

Silva, D. A.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stappaerts, E. A.

Steinhoff, N.

Su, T.

Takayama, Y.

Takenaka, H.

Toyoda, H.

Toyoshima, M.

Tucker, J.

Tur, M.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Vasic, B. V.

Vasnetsov, M.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, A. R.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

Willner, A. E.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 4062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Willner, M. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G.

Yan, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Young, P. E.

Yue, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 197 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 7, 55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Paterson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wave Random Media (1)

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2013), paper We.3.D.1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual diagram for turbulence compensation of a distorted OAM beam. The adaptive-optics compensation system reduces power leakage to neighboring modes caused by atmospheric turbulence.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme for turbulence compensation of multiple OAM beams using a Gaussian probe beam for wavefront sensing. PBS, polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup. BS: beam splitter, Col.: Collimator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, FM: flip mirror, HWP: half-wave plate, OC: optical coupler, PBS: polarization beam splitter, PC: polarization controller, QPSK: quadrature phase shift keying, SLM: spatial light modulator, WFS: wavefront sensor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Far-field intensity images of the Gaussian probe beam and OAM beams (l=1, 3, 5, 7, 9) before [upper, (a1)–(a6)] and after [lower, (b1)–(b6)] compensation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Crosstalk of OAM channel l=5 onto adjacent channels l=6 and 7 for 10 different turbulence realizations. (b) Power distribution (coupled into an SMF) of different OAM channels when transmitting OAM l=5 with and without compensation for turbulence realization #10.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BER for different OAM channels (l=1, 3, 5, or 7) with and without compensation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BERs for OAM channel l=5 when transmitting three OAM channels l=3, 5, 7 with and without compensation for turbulence realization #10.

Metrics