Abstract

The spin–orbit coupling of light propagating in optical fiber can be dramatically enhanced by the presence of a high-contrast interface in the refractive index profile, even for modes that are highly paraxial. The resulting modes have spatial and polarization structures that depart greatly from the weak coupling form, and, in particular, are neither orbital nor spin angular momentum eigenstates. We explain the physical origins of this strong-coupling regime with a vector geometric theory of diffraction expansion.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. M. Rytov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 18, 263 (1938).
  2. V. V. Vladimirsky, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 222 (1941).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Goos and H. Hänchen, Ann. Phys. 436, 333 (1947).
  5. F. I. Fedorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 105, 465 (1955).
  6. C. Imbert, Phys. Rev. D 5, 787 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. S. Liberman and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 46, 5199 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Y. Savchencko and B. Y. Zel’dovich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 273 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 83901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Lett. A 333, 181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Y. Bliokh, J. Opt. A 11, 094009 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Y. Bliokh and A. Aiello, J. Opt. 15, 014001 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Y. Chiao and Y.-S. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 933 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Tomita and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 937 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983), Vol. 190.
  17. M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1365 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1972).
  20. A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).
  21. S. Golowich and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 6870 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Ramachandran, S. Golowich, M. F. Yan, E. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, J. Fleming, S. Ghalmi, and P. Wisk, Opt. Lett. 30, 2864 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Hautakorpi, A. Shevchenko, and M. Kaivola, Opt. Commun. 237, 103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 524 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, and S. Ramachandran, in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW2D.2.
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  30. M. Hautakorpi and M. Kaivola, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1163 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).
  32. S. Lee, J. Park, Y. Jeong, H. Jung, and K. Oh, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4919 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. B. Keller and S. I. Rubinow, Ann. Phys. 9, 24 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  35. V. M. Babic and V. S. Buldyrev, Short-Wavelength Diffraction Theory (Springer-Verlag, 1991).
  36. K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 4541 (2000).

2013 (2)

K. Y. Bliokh and A. Aiello, J. Opt. 15, 014001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (4)

M. Hautakorpi, A. Shevchenko, and M. Kaivola, Opt. Commun. 237, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 83901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Lett. A 333, 181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 4541 (2000).

1998 (1)

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Liberman and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 46, 5199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

R. Y. Chiao and Y.-S. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 933 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Tomita and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 937 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 392, 45 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1365 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

C. Imbert, Phys. Rev. D 5, 787 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

J. B. Keller and S. I. Rubinow, Ann. Phys. 9, 24 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

F. I. Fedorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 105, 465 (1955).

1947 (1)

F. Goos and H. Hänchen, Ann. Phys. 436, 333 (1947).

1941 (1)

V. V. Vladimirsky, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 222 (1941).

1938 (1)

S. M. Rytov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 18, 263 (1938).

Aiello, A.

K. Y. Bliokh and A. Aiello, J. Opt. 15, 014001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M. A.

K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babic, V. M.

V. M. Babic and V. S. Buldyrev, Short-Wavelength Diffraction Theory (Springer-Verlag, 1991).

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 392, 45 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, K. Y.

K. Y. Bliokh and A. Aiello, J. Opt. 15, 014001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh, J. Opt. A 11, 094009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Lett. A 333, 181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, Y. P.

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Lett. A 333, 181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, and S. Ramachandran, in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW2D.2.

Buldyrev, V. S.

V. M. Babic and V. S. Buldyrev, Short-Wavelength Diffraction Theory (Springer-Verlag, 1991).

Burke, J. J.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1972).

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao and Y.-S. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 933 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Tomita and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 937 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dooghin, A. V.

A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fadeeva, T. A.

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

Fedorov, F. I.

F. I. Fedorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 105, 465 (1955).

Fleming, J.

Ghalmi, S.

Golowich, S.

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Golowich and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 6870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, S. Golowich, M. F. Yan, E. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, J. Fleming, S. Ghalmi, and P. Wisk, Opt. Lett. 30, 2864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, and S. Ramachandran, in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW2D.2.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2013) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

Goos, F.

F. Goos and H. Hänchen, Ann. Phys. 436, 333 (1947).

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 4541 (2000).

Gregg, P.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2013) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, and S. Ramachandran, in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW2D.2.

Hänchen, H.

F. Goos and H. Hänchen, Ann. Phys. 436, 333 (1947).

Hasman, E.

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hautakorpi, M.

M. Hautakorpi and M. Kaivola, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hautakorpi, A. Shevchenko, and M. Kaivola, Opt. Commun. 237, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Imbert, C.

C. Imbert, Phys. Rev. D 5, 787 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Jhe, W.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

Jung, Y.

Kaivola, M.

M. Hautakorpi and M. Kaivola, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hautakorpi, A. Shevchenko, and M. Kaivola, Opt. Commun. 237, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapany, N. S.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1972).

Keller, J. B.

J. B. Keller and S. I. Rubinow, Ann. Phys. 9, 24 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 4541 (2000).

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2013) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, and S. Ramachandran, in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW2D.2.

Kundikova, N. D.

A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lax, M.

M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1365 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lee, S.

Liberman, V. S.

A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Liberman and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 46, 5199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Louisell, W. H.

M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1365 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Love, J.

A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983), Vol. 190.

McKnight, W. B.

M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1365 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

Murakami, S.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 83901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagaosa, N.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 83901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, T.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niv, A.

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Ohtsu, M.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, J.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2013) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

Onoda, M.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 83901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Golowich and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 6870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, S. Golowich, M. F. Yan, E. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, J. Fleming, S. Ghalmi, and P. Wisk, Opt. Lett. 30, 2864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2013) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, and S. Ramachandran, in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW2D.2.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rubinow, S. I.

J. B. Keller and S. I. Rubinow, Ann. Phys. 9, 24 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 18, 263 (1938).

Sakaki, K.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Ultramicroscopy 61, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Savchencko, A. Y.

Shevchenko, A.

M. Hautakorpi, A. Shevchenko, and M. Kaivola, Opt. Commun. 237, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shvedov, V. G.

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

Snyder, A.

A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983), Vol. 190.

Soskin, M. S.

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

Steinvurzel, P.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2013) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

Tomita, A.

A. Tomita and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 937 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirsky, V. V.

V. V. Vladimirsky, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 222 (1941).

Volyar, A. V.

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Wu, Y.-S.

R. Y. Chiao and Y.-S. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 933 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Y.

Zeldovich, B. Y.

A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Liberman and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 46, 5199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhilaitis, V. Z.

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

Ann. Phys. (2)

F. Goos and H. Hänchen, Ann. Phys. 436, 333 (1947).

J. B. Keller and S. I. Rubinow, Ann. Phys. 9, 24 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Ocean. Opt. (1)

A. V. Volyar, V. Z. Zhilaitis, V. G. Shvedov, M. S. Soskin, and T. A. Fadeeva, Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 11, 981 (1998).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (3)

F. I. Fedorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 105, 465 (1955).

S. M. Rytov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 18, 263 (1938).

V. V. Vladimirsky, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 222 (1941).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

K. Y. Bliokh and A. Aiello, J. Opt. 15, 014001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

K. Y. Bliokh, J. Opt. A 11, 094009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nat. Photonics 2, 748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Hautakorpi, A. Shevchenko, and M. Kaivola, Opt. Commun. 237, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, Phys. Lett. A 333, 181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

V. S. Liberman and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 46, 5199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1365 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Dooghin, N. D. Kundikova, V. S. Liberman, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8204 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh, M. A. Alonso, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello, Phys. Rev. A 82, 063825 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Class of refractive index profiles considered.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison between HE1,1 fields of low-contrast (a) and high-contrast (b) fibers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Paths corresponding to the two GTD eigenvalue equations for the ring fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transverse fields of low-contrast HE1,1, (b) high-contrast HE1,1, and (c) high-contrast EH3,2. Exact (solid) and GTD (dashed) er (red) and eϕ (blue) are shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effective index as function of rco for air-core fiber, with Δrri=2μm, Δnri=0.04. Exact (solid) and GTD (dashed) solutions are shown.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(r,t)=ei(βzωt)em,n(r)=s=0em,n(s)(r)eiω(tτ(r))(iω)s,
ωΓτ·d=2πnγ,
nrik0a0sinη=m,
nrik0sinη[(a22a02)1/2(a12a02)1/2a0(arccosa0a2arccosa0a1)]=πnγ2,
R^(ϕED)T^ADe^0=e^0,

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