Abstract

We report on bulk optical refrigeration of Yb:YLF crystal to a temperature of 124K, starting from the ambient. This is achieved by pumping the E4-E5 Stark multiplet transition at 1020nm. A lower temperature of 119±1K (154C) with available cooling power of 18 mW is attained when the temperature of the surrounding crystal is reduced to 210 K. This result is within only a few degrees of the minimum achievable temperature of our crystal and signifies the bulk solid-state laser cooling below the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-defined cryogenic temperature of 123 K.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 086501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, D. Bigotta, A. di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. Epstein, Nat. Photonics 1, 693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hehlen, R. Epstein, and H. Inoue, Phys. Rev. B 75, 144302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Fernandez, A. Garcia-Adeva, and R. Balda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

2005

J. Thiede, J. Distel, S. Greenfield, and R. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2000

C. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, B. Edwards, and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Bowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1964

1929

P. Pringsheim, Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 739 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

C. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, B. Edwards, and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

J. Fernandez, A. Garcia-Adeva, and R. Balda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bender, D.

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

Bigotta, D.

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, D. Bigotta, A. di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonelli, L.

Bowman, S.

S. Bowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, M.

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coluccelli, N.

Di Lieto, A.

Distel, J.

Edwards, B.

C. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, B. Edwards, and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R.

D. Seletskiy, M. Hehlen, R. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, R. Epstein, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Express 19, 18229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hehlen, R. Epstein, and H. Inoue, Phys. Rev. B 75, 144302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. Epstein, Nat. Photonics 1, 693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thiede, J. Distel, S. Greenfield, and R. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hoyt, M. Hasselbeck, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, S. Greenfield, J. Thiede, J. Distel, and J. Valencia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, B. Edwards, and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration(Wiley-VCH, 2009).

Epstein, R. I.

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

Fernandez, J.

J. Fernandez, A. Garcia-Adeva, and R. Balda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

Garcia-Adeva, A.

J. Fernandez, A. Garcia-Adeva, and R. Balda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T.

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greenfield, S.

Hasselbeck, M.

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

C. Hoyt, M. Hasselbeck, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, S. Greenfield, J. Thiede, J. Distel, and J. Valencia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M.

Herriott, D.

Hoyt, C.

Imangholi, B.

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

Inoue, H.

M. Hehlen, R. Epstein, and H. Inoue, Phys. Rev. B 75, 144302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 086501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kurtz, S.

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

Laporta, P.

McCumber, D.

D. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Melgaard, S.

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, R. Epstein, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Express 19, 18229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, D. Bigotta, A. di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mungan, C. E.

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nemova, G.

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 086501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pringsheim, P.

P. Pringsheim, Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 739 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Seletskiy, D.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

D. Seletskiy, M. Hehlen, R. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, R. Epstein, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Express 19, 18229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, D. Bigotta, A. di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. Epstein, Nat. Photonics 1, 693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

C. Hoyt, M. Hasselbeck, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, S. Greenfield, J. Thiede, J. Distel, and J. Valencia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, B. Edwards, and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration(Wiley-VCH, 2009).

Thiede, J.

Tonelli, M.

Valencia, J.

Wang, C.

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Thiede, J. Distel, S. Greenfield, and R. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Bowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

D. Seletskiy, S. Melgaard, D. Bigotta, A. di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. Epstein, Nat. Photonics 1, 693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Epstein, M. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

D. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Hehlen, R. Epstein, and H. Inoue, Phys. Rev. B 75, 144302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. Epstein, B. Edwards, and J. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernandez, A. Garcia-Adeva, and R. Balda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 033001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

B. Imangholi, M. Hasselbeck, D. Bender, C. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, and S. Kurtz, Proc. SPIE 6115, 215 (2006).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 086501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeitschrift für Physik

P. Pringsheim, Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 739 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration(Wiley-VCH, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Left) The cooling cycle associated with the Stark multiplet of Yb3+, showing explicitly the E4-E5 pumped transition. (Right) Map of cooling efficiency [Eq. (1)] for Yb3+:YLF with ηext=(99.4±0.1)% and αb=(4.4±0.2×104)cm1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature evolution of Yb:YLF, from 285 K down to the NIST-defined cryogenic operation point of 123 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Steady-state temperature scaling with the absorbed power (black), model prediction (blue line), and lowest temperature achieved by effective scaling of the absorbed power (red “x”).

Equations (2)

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ηc(λ,T)=ηext[11+αb/α(λ,T)]λλf(T)1,
ηc(λ,T)Pabs(λ,T)=κ(Tc4T4),

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