Abstract

In this study, we fabricated a high-brightness AlGaInP light-emitting diode (LED) using the direct printing technique and dry etching. In general, wet etching is used for surface roughening to improve the light extraction of AlGaInP red LEDs. However, a structure fabricated by wet etching has limited height and shows a tiled cone shape after the etching process due to the AlGaInP crystal structure. These limitations reduce the light extraction of the LED. As a result, we fabricated a perfectly cone-shaped pattern with high aspect ratio using direct printing by etching to maximize the LED light extraction efficiency. Compared to the red LED with a wet-etched structure, the patterning enhanced the light output power by 12% without electrical degradation. This enhanced light output power was maintained even after the packaging process.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

2010 (2)

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. J. Pimputkar, S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, Nat. Photonics 3, 180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Schubert and J. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. J. Pimputkar, S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, Nat. Photonics 3, 180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

Haruyama, Y.

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hatakoshi, G.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

Ishikawa, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, K.

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

E. Schubert and J. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. P.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

J. W. Seo, H. S. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lardizabal, M. C.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minari, C.

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. J. Pimputkar, S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, Nat. Photonics 3, 180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, H. S.

J. W. Seo, H. S. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okada, M.

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osentowski, T. D.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Pimputkar, S. J.

S. J. Pimputkar, S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, Nat. Photonics 3, 180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, V. M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

Schubert, E.

E. Schubert and J. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. W.

J. W. Seo, H. S. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, S.

S. J. Pimputkar, S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, Nat. Photonics 3, 180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, H.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

Yan, L. J.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. W. Seo, H. S. Oh, and J. S. Kwak, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kang, M. Okada, C. Minari, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 06GL13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. J. Pimputkar, S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, Nat. Photonics 3, 180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

E. Schubert and J. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagrams of vertical-type red LED device (a) before wet etching, (b) after wet etching, and (c) focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) image of surface of red LED after wet etching.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the overall process of micro- and nanopatterning on the red LED device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of (a), (b) submicrometer patterns and (e), (f) micrometer SiOx patterns on AlGaInP-based LED structures after the direct HSQ printing process; SEM image of (c), (d) submicrometer patterns and (g), (h) micrometer patterns on AlGaInP-based LED structures after dry-etching process.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) IV characteristics and (b) optical powers of LED devices with wet-etched pattern, micrometer pattern, and submicrometer pattern according to current.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light output power before and after packaging process, LED devices with wet-etched pattern, micrometer pattern, and nanopattern.

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