Abstract

We report use of high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography to noninvasively image pulsatile axial movement of the optic nerve head (ONH) in normal human subjects. Time-lapse B-scan mode is used to image the ONH at 500 frames per second. Capture of phase differences between adjacent B-scans permits extraction of axial ONH movement. We find the ONH experiences continuous oscillatory axial motion that is strongly correlated with simultaneously measured pulsatile blood flow in the central retinal artery.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. E. Chang and J. L. Goldberg, Ophthalmology 119, 979 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. C. Leske, Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 14, 166 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, Express Eye Res. 88, 799(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).
  5. R. L. Radius and D. R. Anderson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 244 (1980).
  6. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. K. Wang, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2770 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

E. E. Chang and J. L. Goldberg, Ophthalmology 119, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, Express Eye Res. 88, 799(2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. C. Leske, Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 14, 166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).

R. L. Radius and D. R. Anderson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 244 (1980).

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).

An, L.

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. R.

R. L. Radius and D. R. Anderson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 244 (1980).

Chang, E. E.

E. E. Chang and J. L. Goldberg, Ophthalmology 119, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Costantino, S.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Descovich, D.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dion, C.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ethier, C. R.

A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, Express Eye Res. 88, 799(2009).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Flower, R. W.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Godin, A.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, J. L.

E. E. Chang and J. L. Goldberg, Ophthalmology 119, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, M.

R. K. Wang, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kindelder, R.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kok, P.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lesk, M.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leske, M. C.

M. C. Leske, Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 14, 166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lorghaba, F.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, D. S.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).

Ozaki, T.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quigley, H. A.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).

Radius, R. L.

R. L. Radius and D. R. Anderson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 244 (1980).

Schraa, O.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. T.

Sigal, A.

A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, Express Eye Res. 88, 799(2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Subhush, H. M.

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verbraak, F.

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. J.

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. Hinds, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Express Eye Res.

A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, Express Eye Res. 88, 799(2009).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

K. Singh, C. Dion, A. Godin, F. Lorghaba, D. Descovich, T. Ozaki, S. Costantino, and M. Lesk, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 7819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505 (1980).

R. L. Radius and D. R. Anderson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 244 (1980).

R. Kindelder, J. Kalkman, D. Faber, O. Schraa, P. Kok, F. Verbraak, and T. van Leeuwen, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52, 3908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Epidemiol.

M. C. Leske, Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 14, 166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology

E. E. Chang and J. L. Goldberg, Ophthalmology 119, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) OCT fundus image of ONH, (b) typical cross-sectional image, and (c) corresponding phase difference map. R, retina; C, choroid; PL, pre-lamina; LC, laminar cribrosa. Bar=500μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical curve of the raw Δφ between adjacent B-scans and (b) corresponding tissue motion after compensating the bulk tissue-motion. (c) Typical curve of the raw Δφ indicating the problem of phase wrapping (the inset shows Δφ map across the B-scan) and (d) corresponding Δφ curve after phase unwrapping. The spikes were due to the blood flow.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Velocity map of ONH movements and (b) a typical ONH velocity curve at the position marked by the black line in (a). (c) Displacement map of ONH and (d) displacement curve corresponding to (c). (e) Typical Doppler flow map and (f) dynamic blood flow measured from CRA. Bar=500μm.

Metrics