Abstract

A multilayer photonic XOR gate is presented. The XOR is implemented by the interconnect layers of a microelectronic chip and is suitable for fabrication in a standard VLSI fabrication process. The proposed device features an inherent insertion loss compensation mechanism by utilization of nanometric holes, making it possible to implement an optic memory cell without the need of additional complex compensation devices. The structure of such a memory cell, implemented by utilization of two proposed XOR gates, configured to perform the NOT function, is shown. The unique structure of the proposed device allows us to significantly reduce sensitivity to process variations and therefore makes it possible to utilize the memory cell in state-of-the-art nanoscale processes. The proposed memory can be integrated with conventional electronics on the same VLSI chip.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. E. Moore, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Newsl. 11, 33 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Limon and Z. Zalevsky, Opt. Eng. 48, 064601 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Meiri and Z. Zalevsky are preparing a paper titled “Cascading of all-optical devices with arbitrary phase output by intra-bit phase encoding.”

2012

M. Alioto, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 59, 3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Limon and Z. Zalevsky, Opt. Eng. 48, 064601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. E. Moore, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Newsl. 11, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

2000

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alioto, M.

M. Alioto, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 59, 3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asano, K.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bass, O.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

A. Teene, B. Davis, R. Castagnetti, J. Brown, and S. Ramesh, in Sixth International Symposium on Quality of Electronic Design, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 694–699.

Byrnes, A.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Castagnetti, R.

A. Teene, B. Davis, R. Castagnetti, J. Brown, and S. Ramesh, in Sixth International Symposium on Quality of Electronic Design, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 694–699.

Choi, D.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Cohen, Y.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Davis, B.

A. Teene, B. Davis, R. Castagnetti, J. Brown, and S. Ramesh, in Sixth International Symposium on Quality of Electronic Design, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 694–699.

Eggleton, B.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Fan, S.

Fish, A.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E. G.

V. F. Pavlidis and E. G. Friedman, Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Fukuda, H.

Gover, A.

A. Gover, M. Nathan, and Y. Schatzberg, “Solid state terahertz radiation frequency multiplier,” U.S. patent 8,031,014 (October4, 2011).

Hisamoto, D.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.-I.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kedzierski, J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, T.-J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Limon, O.

O. Limon and Z. Zalevsky, Opt. Eng. 48, 064601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Luther-Davies, B.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Madden, S.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Meiri, A.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Meiri and Z. Zalevsky are preparing a paper titled “Cascading of all-optical devices with arbitrary phase output by intra-bit phase encoding.”

Moore, G. E.

G. E. Moore, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Newsl. 11, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, M.

A. Gover, M. Nathan, and Y. Schatzberg, “Solid state terahertz radiation frequency multiplier,” U.S. patent 8,031,014 (October4, 2011).

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985), p. 280.

Pant, R.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Pavlidis, V. F.

V. F. Pavlidis and E. G. Friedman, Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Poulton, C.

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

Ramesh, S.

A. Teene, B. Davis, R. Castagnetti, J. Brown, and S. Ramesh, in Sixth International Symposium on Quality of Electronic Design, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 694–699.

Schatzberg, Y.

A. Gover, M. Nathan, and Y. Schatzberg, “Solid state terahertz radiation frequency multiplier,” U.S. patent 8,031,014 (October4, 2011).

Shoji, T.

Takahashi, J.-I.

Takahashi, M.

Takeuchi, H.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teene, A.

A. Teene, B. Davis, R. Castagnetti, J. Brown, and S. Ramesh, in Sixth International Symposium on Quality of Electronic Design, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 694–699.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Tzur, S.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Yamada, K.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zalevsky, Z.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Limon and Z. Zalevsky, Opt. Eng. 48, 064601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Meiri and Z. Zalevsky are preparing a paper titled “Cascading of all-optical devices with arbitrary phase output by intra-bit phase encoding.”

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Solid-State Circuits Newsl.

G. E. Moore, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Newsl. 11, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.

M. Alioto, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 59, 3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 2320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton.

A. Meiri, S. Tzur, Y. Cohen, O. Bass, A. Fish, and Z. Zalevsky, J. Nanophoton. 6, 061607 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

O. Limon and Z. Zalevsky, Opt. Eng. 48, 064601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Byrnes, R. Pant, C. Poulton, E. Li, D. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. Eggleton, in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTu2A.6.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985), p. 280.

ITRS, http://www.itrs.net/Links/2011ITRS/2011Tables/Interconnect_2011Tables.xlsx .

V. F. Pavlidis and E. G. Friedman, Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

A. Meiri and Z. Zalevsky are preparing a paper titled “Cascading of all-optical devices with arbitrary phase output by intra-bit phase encoding.”

A. Teene, B. Davis, R. Castagnetti, J. Brown, and S. Ramesh, in Sixth International Symposium on Quality of Electronic Design, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 694–699.

A. Gover, M. Nathan, and Y. Schatzberg, “Solid state terahertz radiation frequency multiplier,” U.S. patent 8,031,014 (October4, 2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed photonic circuit: (a) the XOR gate (without compensation mechanism) and (b) the proposed memory cell. Eref is used to transform the XOR operation into a NOT operation for the memory cell implementation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

x axis energy for the case where (a) A=0, B=1, (b) A=1, B=0, and (c) A=1, B=1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sensitivity of the device to variations in input A: (a) extinction ratio [decibel] and (b) insertion loss [decibel].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sensitivity of the device to asymmetric variations in the metal thickness: (a) extinction ratio [decibel] and (b) insertion loss [decibel].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sensitivity of the device to asymmetric variations in the external waveguides thickness: (a) extinction ratio [decibel] and (b) insertion loss [decibel].

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Photonic Gate Logic Operation

Equations (1)

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Pout=ηCabsIgain,

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