Abstract

We demonstrated high-index-contrast, waveguide-coupled As2Se3 chalcogenide glass resonators monolithically integrated on silicon fabricated using optical lithography and a lift-off process. The resonators exhibited a high intrinsic quality factor of 2×105 at 5.2 μm wavelength, which is among the highest values reported in on-chip mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic devices. The resonator can serve as a key building block for mid-IR planar photonic circuits.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

R. Shankar, R. Leijssen, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, Opt. Express 19, 5579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, R. Leijssen, and M. Loncar, Opt. Express 19, 24828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, Opt. Express 15, 2307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ho, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier, Opt. Lett. 31, 1860 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Agarwal, A.

Allen, P. J.

Anheier, J. N. C.

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

Arnold, C. B.

Atabaki, A. H.

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonhomme, E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J. E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Carlie, N.

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, Opt. Lett. 33, 2500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, Opt. Express 15, 2307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danto, S.

Feng, N. N.

Gmachl, C. F.

Ho, N.

Hochberg, M.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hu, J.

Y. Zou, H. Lin, O. Ogbuu, L. Li, S. Danto, S. Novak, J. Novak, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. J.

Ilic, R.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswami, K.

Labadie, L.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leijssen, R.

Li, L.

Lin, H.

Lin, H. T.

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Madsen, C. K.

Mujagic, E.

Musgraves, J. D.

Y. Zou, H. Lin, O. Ogbuu, L. Li, S. Danto, S. Novak, J. Novak, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and J. Hu, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

Novak, J.

Novak, S.

Ogbuu, O.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1997).

Petit, L.

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, Opt. Lett. 33, 2500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, Opt. Express 15, 2307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. C.

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Ho, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier, Opt. Lett. 31, 1860 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Qiao, H. A.

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. A.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riley, B. J.

Rodriguez, V.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, R.

Soltani, M.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, Proc. SPIE 6898, 689809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, V.

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, C.

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yi, Z.

Zha, Y.

Zou, Y.

Acta Mater. (1)

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, Acta Mater. 59, 5032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. Soref, Proc. SPIE 6898, 689809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. Carlie, J. N. C. Anheier, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1997).

Photon Design Ltd., “ http://www.photond.com/products/fimmwave.htm , retrieved.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic fabrication process flow for the As 2 Se 3 mid-IR waveguides (not drawn to scale).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mid-IR fiber end fire waveguide measurement setup schematic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Top-view microscope image of a mid-IR InF 3 fiber end-coupled to an As 2 Se 3 waveguide with a lateral taper to reduce the mode mismatch; (b) far-field image of the TE-guided mode from a single-mode As 2 Se 3 bus waveguide; (c) optical microscope top-view image of a 200 μm radius mid-IR resonator; (d) microscope image showing the 2.75 μm wide coupling gap between the bus waveguide and the microdisk resonator; and (e) simulated field intensity profile of the fundamental whispering gallery mode of the ChG microdisk resonator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Mid-IR optical transmission spectrum of the As 2 Se 3 microdisk resonator measured using a wavelength sweeping method and (b) spectrum near the optical resonance at 5157.89 nm wavelength (the red box in a). The dots are experimentally measured data and the line is the linear-scale Lorentzian fit, which indicates a loaded cavity quality factor of 10 5 .

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