Abstract

We report on fabrication of whispering-gallery-mode microlasers in a Nd:glass chip by femtosecond laser three-dimensional micromachining. The main fabrication procedures include the fabrication of freestanding microdisks supported by thin pillars by femtosecond laser ablation of the glass substrate immersed in water, followed by CO2 laser annealing for surface smoothing. The quality (Q) factor of the fabricated microcavity is measured to be 1.065×106. Lasing is observed at a pump threshold as low as 69μW at room temperature with a continuous-wave laser diode operating at 780 nm. This technique allows for fabrication of microcavities of high Q factors in various dielectric materials, such as glasses and crystals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60 (2013).

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2006 (2)

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, Opt. Lett. 29, 1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. I. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. I. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beck, T.

Chen, Q. D.

Cheng, Y.

Chow, E.

Cohoon, G. A.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.-H.

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

Feng, X.-B.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freymann, G.

Gibbs, H. M.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Gong, Q.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, T.

Grot, A.

Guo, G.-C.

Han, Z.-F.

Hauser, M.

He, F.

He, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60 (2013).

Hendrickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jiang, X.-F.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Kalt, H.

Khitrova, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. I.

D. K. Armani, T. I. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ku, J. F.

Kuroda, D.

Lee, M. C. M.

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.-B.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, Opt. Lett. 26, 1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Liu, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Nishii, J.

Norwood, R. A.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Özdemir, S. K.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60 (2013).

Qiao, L.

Qin, Y.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schleede, S.

Shchekin, O. B.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. I. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Tada, K.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

Tong, L.

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. I. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wu, M. C.

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-F.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, C.-L. Zou, Z.-F. Han, L. Yang, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 34, 509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60 (2013).

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, C.-L. Zou, Z.-F. Han, L. Yang, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 34, 509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

Zhang, R.

Zou, C.-L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60 (2013).

Nature (3)

D. K. Armani, T. I. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, Nature 432, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Procedures for fabrication of a Nd:glass microcavity by femtosecond laser ablation assisted with water, followed by CO2 laser reflow.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscope images of (a) a microtoroid and (b) a spheroid fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation after CO2 laser heating. Insets in (a) and (b) are top views of the microcavities. (c) and (d) SEM images of the spheroid microcavity at different viewing angles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Laser output power as a function of the pump power, showing a lasing threshold of 69 μW. The upper inset in (a) is a schematic of the laser experimental setup. The lower inset in (a) shows laser spots on the edges of microcavity captured with the 2D CCD array detector mounted on the spectrometer. (b) Evolution of the microcavity photoluminescence emission spectrum with increasing pump power.

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