Abstract

We report a simple method for generating cylindrical vector beams directly from laser-diode (LD)-pumped microchip solid-state lasers by using dual end-pumping beams. Radially as well as azimuthally polarized vector field emissions have been generated from the common c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser cavity merely by controlling the focus positions of orthogonally polarized LD off-axis pump beams. Hyperbolically polarized vector fields have also been observed, in which the cylindrical symmetry of vector fields is broken. Experimental results have been well reproduced by numerical simulations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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K. Otsuka, Opt. Lett. 37, 4287 (2012).
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2009

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N. V. Kravtsov, E. G. Lariontsev, and N. I. Naumkin, Quantum Electron. 34, 839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

I. V. Veshneva, A. I. Konukhov, L. A. Melnikov, and M. V. Ryabinina, J. Opt. B 3, S9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
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B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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L. Gil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, and P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811 (1992).
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1979

Anderson, E. H.

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bandres, M. A.

Bielawski, S.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, and P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-C.

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Derozier, D.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, and P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, Opt. Commun. 201, 251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gil, L.

L. Gil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, P.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, and P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gutiérrez-Vega, J. C.

Hall, D. G.

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, R.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

King, O.

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Konukhov, A. I.

I. V. Veshneva, A. I. Konukhov, L. A. Melnikov, and M. V. Ryabinina, J. Opt. B 3, S9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, Y.

Kravtsov, N. V.

N. V. Kravtsov, E. G. Lariontsev, and N. I. Naumkin, Quantum Electron. 34, 839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

Lai, H. C.

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053904 (2003).
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Lariontsev, E. G.

N. V. Kravtsov, E. G. Lariontsev, and N. I. Naumkin, Quantum Electron. 34, 839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J. R.

Lin, C.-C.

Liu, J.

Lu, T. H.

Y. F. Chen, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, L. A.

I. V. Veshneva, A. I. Konukhov, L. A. Melnikov, and M. V. Ryabinina, J. Opt. B 3, S9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

Naumkin, N. I.

N. V. Kravtsov, E. G. Lariontsev, and N. I. Naumkin, Quantum Electron. 34, 839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nesterov, A. V.

Niziev, V. G.

Novotny, L.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, T.

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

Petrov, V.

Rizzoli, S. O.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ryabinina, M. V.

I. V. Veshneva, A. I. Konukhov, L. A. Melnikov, and M. V. Ryabinina, J. Opt. B 3, S9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Sick, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tokunaga, K.

Veshneva, I. V.

I. V. Veshneva, A. I. Konukhov, L. A. Melnikov, and M. V. Ryabinina, J. Opt. B 3, S9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Westphal, V.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wicks, W.

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Willig, K. I.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, K.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, H.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B

I. V. Veshneva, A. I. Konukhov, L. A. Melnikov, and M. V. Ryabinina, J. Opt. B 3, S9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Otsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 080203 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

I. Freund, Opt. Commun. 201, 251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, and P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Gil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. H. Lu, and K. F. Huang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

N. V. Kravtsov, E. G. Lariontsev, and N. I. Naumkin, Quantum Electron. 34, 839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. LD, laser diode; AP, anamorphic prism; OL, objective lens; PBC, polarization beam combiner; HWP, half-wave plate; BS, beam splitter; IR, infrared. (b) Definition of crystal rotation θ and tilt angle α.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Radially polarized emission. P=355mW. (a) Observed intensity patterns. (b) Optical spectrum with a sweep voltage. (c) Numerical results; w=1, θ=12°, and ΔΦ=0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Azimuthally polarized emission. P=355mW. (a) Observed intensity patterns. (b) Optical spectrum with a sweep voltage. (c) Numerical results; w=1, θ=12°, and ΔΦ=0.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated polarization vector fields corresponding to Figs. 2 and 3, assuming ΔΦ=π. (a) Radially polarized HG mode pair. (b) Azimuthally polarized HG mode pair.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observed intensity patterns; Δα=60° and P=355mW. (b) Calculated polarization-resolved and total vector fields; w=1, ΔΦ=0, and θ=20°.

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