Abstract

Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) electrodes have the potential to significantly increase the absorption efficiency and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband cavity resonance. Silver-based semitransparent DMD electrodes with sheet resistances below 10  ohm/sq. are fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in a high-throughput roll-to-roll sputtering tool. We carefully study the effect of the semitransparent DMD electrode (here composed of ZnxSnyOz/Ag/InxSnyOz) on the optical device performance of a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cell and illustrate that a resonant cavity enhanced light trapping effect dominates the optical behavior of the device.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 21, 1323 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Choi, and H.-K. Kim, J. Phys. D 42, 235109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, Opt. Express 16, 5385 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. The ZAI electrodes were fabricated on 2 mil thick PET substrates in a dual-drum sputter roll coater with 12′′ web width capability and deposition pressure at 6 mTorr. The ZTO layer was sputtered from a ZnSn target of 1∶1 ratio at a specific dynamic deposition rate of 107  nm·mm s−1 kW−1 with an Ar and O2 flow of 20 and 80 sccm, respectively. Silver and ITO were deposited at 50 and 200  nm·mm s−1 kW−1, respectively. The web coater line speed varied between 5 and 24  mm s−1.
  13. D. Cheyns, B. P. Rand, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033301 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheyns, B. P. Rand, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Choi, and H.-K. Kim, J. Phys. D 42, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 21, 1323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, Opt. Express 16, 5385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basu Mallick, S.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 21, 1323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheyns, D.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheyns, B. P. Rand, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.-H.

Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Choi, and H.-K. Kim, J. Phys. D 42, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chueh, C.-C.

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Das, K.

V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 21, 1323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, A.

V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hadipour, A.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, W. T.

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heremans, P.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheyns, B. P. Rand, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-K.

Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Choi, and H.-K. Kim, J. Phys. D 42, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-Y.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-Z.

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Long, Y.

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, J.-L.

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meiss, J.

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meng, F.

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Niesen, B.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Choi, and H.-K. Kim, J. Phys. D 42, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, Opt. Express 16, 5385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfuetzner, S.

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheyns, B. P. Rand, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S. K.

V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riede, M.

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salinas, J.-F.

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 21, 1323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sergeant, N. P.

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sivaji Reddy, V.

V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorpe, P.

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wrzesniewski, E.

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yip, H.-L.

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

B. Niesen, B. P. Rand, P. Van Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev, and P. Heremans, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 21, 1323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Salinas, H.-L. Yip, C.-C. Chueh, C.-Z. Li, J.-L. Maldonado, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 24, 6362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sergeant, A. Hadipour, B. Niesen, D. Cheyns, P. Heremans, P. Peumans, and B. P. Rand, Adv. Mater. 24, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Cheyns, B. P. Rand, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 033301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Meiss, M. Furno, S. Pfuetzner, K. Leo, and M. Riede, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Choi, and H.-K. Kim, J. Phys. D 42, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, MRS Bull. 36, 453 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

W. Cao, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, E. Wrzesniewski, W. T. Hammond, and J. Xue, Org. Electron. 13, 2221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

V. Sivaji Reddy, K. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

W. Yu, L. Shen, F. Meng, Y. Long, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

The ZAI electrodes were fabricated on 2 mil thick PET substrates in a dual-drum sputter roll coater with 12′′ web width capability and deposition pressure at 6 mTorr. The ZTO layer was sputtered from a ZnSn target of 1∶1 ratio at a specific dynamic deposition rate of 107  nm·mm s−1 kW−1 with an Ar and O2 flow of 20 and 80 sccm, respectively. Silver and ITO were deposited at 50 and 200  nm·mm s−1 kW−1, respectively. The web coater line speed varied between 5 and 24  mm s−1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Device geometry for the solar cells fabricated on the (a) ZAI and (b) ITO anodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured (markers) and modeled (curves) spectral transmission of the ZTO(20nm)/Ag(7nm)/ITO(44nm) electrode (circles) as well as the reference ITO (140 nm) electrode on PET (triangles). The transmission is referenced to air, and thus includes the reflection and absorption of the substrate. (b) Measured and (c) modeled TAE (top curves) and EQE (bottom curves) for the solar cells on ZAI anode (circles, dashed) and ITO reference (triangles, solid).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized field intensity at normal incidence for the solar cells fabricated on (a) ITO and (b) ZAI anodes on PET. Light is incident from the top through the PET substrate. The dashed line approximates the first maximum of the field intensity at x=λ/(4nC60), where x is the distance from the back contact and nC60 is the refractive index of the C60 layer.

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