Abstract

Subwavelength gratings coated with metal–dielectric–metal layers and embedded in a dielectric exhibit distinctive color properties in reflectance. The reflected color of incident unpolarized white light can be tuned by the modulation depth of the grating. It is shown that reflective colored images may be reproduced by this type of gratings having a laterally adapted modulation depth. Its lightness, as well as the angle tolerance of the image coloring, is even suitable for human observers in ambient light. The gratings with variable depth are manufactured by electron-beam lithography and by a subsequent direct laser writing process. These types of reflective images may be replicated by a simple nano-imprint process on plastic foil. This method is predestined for industrial mass production.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y.

Chen, C.-F.

C.-J. Ting, F.-Y. Chang, C.-F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Chen, Y.

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N. Nguyen-Huu, Y.-L. Lo, and Y.-B. Chen, Opt. Commun. 284, 2473 (2011).
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Cheong, B.-H.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.-H.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-S.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-Y.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. P.

C.-J. Ting, F.-Y. Chang, C.-F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S.

Crozier, K. B.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Dan, Y.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Drysdale, T. D.

Duan, H.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ellenbogen, T.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grant, J.

Guo, L. J.

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 59, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, R. S.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.-F.

C.-J. Yu, Y.-P. Liang, H.-F. Hong, and C.-M. Wang, Opt. Eng. 51, 044001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-L.

Huang, H.-I.

Huang, Y.

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-S.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Klein, G. A.

G. A. Klein, Industrial Color Physics (Springer, 2010).

Koh, S. C. W.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, K.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lan, H.-C.

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, H.-S.

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, S.-S.

Li, B.

Li, L.

Liang, Y.-P.

C.-J. Yu, Y.-P. Liang, H.-F. Hong, and C.-M. Wang, Opt. Eng. 51, 044001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-S.

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.-C.

Lo, Y.-L.

N. Nguyen-Huu, Y.-L. Lo, and Y.-B. Chen, Opt. Commun. 284, 2473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lochbihler, H.

Luo, X.

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 59, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen-Huu, N.

N. Nguyen-Huu, Y.-L. Lo, and Y.-B. Chen, Opt. Commun. 284, 2473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids Part II (Academic, 1985).

Prudnikov, O. N.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrunt, E.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimono, M.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.-C.

Tao, C.

Ting, C.-J.

C.-J. Ting, F.-Y. Chang, C.-F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, Z.-R.

Walls, K.

Wang, C.

Wang, C.-M.

C.-J. Yu, Y.-P. Liang, H.-F. Hong, and C.-M. Wang, Opt. Eng. 51, 044001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wei, J. N.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wober, M.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-L.

Wu, Y.-K.

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 59, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Xu, T.

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 59, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y.-T.

Yu, C.-J.

C.-J. Yu, Y.-P. Liang, H.-F. Hong, and C.-M. Wang, Opt. Eng. 51, 044001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Zhuang, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B.-H. Cheong, O. N. Prudnikov, E.-H. Cho, H.-S. Kim, J. Yu, Y.-S. Cho, H.-Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

C.-J. Ting, F.-Y. Chang, C.-F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nano Lett.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrunt, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 11, 1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, Nat. Commun. 59, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

N. Nguyen-Huu, Y.-L. Lo, and Y.-B. Chen, Opt. Commun. 284, 2473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C.-J. Yu, Y.-P. Liang, H.-F. Hong, and C.-M. Wang, Opt. Eng. 51, 044001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids Part II (Academic, 1985).

G. A. Klein, Industrial Color Physics (Springer, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Profile of an MDM grating with period d, width b, thicknesses of metallic films h1, and dielectric layer h2 for increasing modulation depths t: (a) t=0, (b) t=(h1+h2)/2, (c) t=h1+h2, and (d) t>2h1+h2. The inset illustrates the basic grating structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Reflectance and (b) transmittance spectra of MDM gratings for different modulation depths t at angle Θ=10°. The inset illustrates the optical constants of aluminum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflected colors of MDM grating with modulation depths from 0 up to 300 nm (a) as coordinates (x,y) in CIE-1931 chromaticity diagram and (b) lightness L* as a function of t for different angles Θ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Replication process for MDM gratings, (a) UV resin layer on PET foil, (b) structure transferred from mold master, (c) grating replica on PET foil, (d) trilayer coating, and (e) embedding by cover sheet.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Master image, (b) calculated coloring of reflectance, and (c) light reflection of a manufactured grating replica at angle Θ=10°.

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