Abstract

A compact and robust scheme for broadband excitation of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances into a microsphere is demonstrated. A polymer microsphere (10 μm) is encapsulated into the capillary of a microstructured optical fiber, in direct contact with the guiding core. Such a configuration allows efficient and reproducible excitation of the in-MOF-microsphere resonator that is characterized by two launch/collection schemes: core input/scattering output, and sphere input/core output. The latter allows an excitation of the microsphere WGMs externally to the fiber. Numerically calculated WGM spectra are in agreement with experiments. Q factors in the range of 103 are typically measured.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, M. De Sario, A. Di Tommaso, and F. Prudenzano, Opt. Express 20, 7616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, Opt. Commun. 282, 3765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Panitchob, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, P. Horak, S. Berneschi, S. Pelli, G. Nunzi Conti, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Express 16, 11066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

Annapurna, K.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, Opt. Commun. 282, 3765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arques, L.

Bandy, D. K.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berneschi, S.

Bia, P.

Bian, S. N.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675(2008).
[CrossRef]

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Carrascosa, A.

Chen, S. Y.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, Opt. Commun. 282, 3765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

Dale, E.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Sario, M.

Di Tommaso, A.

Díez, A.

Dong, C. H.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Francois, A.

A. Francois, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, Opt. Commun. 282, 3765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gregor, M.

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gumennik, A.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. F.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henze, R.

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Hou, C.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, M. J.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jahier, E.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klitzing, W. v.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lestoquoy, G.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lissillour, F.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, W.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mescia, L.

Ming, H.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

A. Francois, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

Nunzi Conti, G.

Painter, O.

Panitchob, Y.

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

Peters, A.

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prudenzano, F.

Pyrlik, C.

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, Opt. Commun. 271, 124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, K. J.

A. Francois, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schell, B. R.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sen, R.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, Opt. Commun. 282, 3765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

Shen, Y. L.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, F.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolyarov, A. M.

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. W.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, K. Annapurna, and R. Sen, Opt. Commun. 282, 3765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vassiliev, V. V.

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, I.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wicht, A.

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xu, F.

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yarovitsky, A. V.

V. V. Vassiliev, V. L. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, Opt. Commun. 158, 305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zamora, V.

Zervas, M. N.

Zou, C. L.

C. H. Dong, Y. Yang, Y. L. Shen, C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, H. Ming, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, Opt. Commun. 283, 5117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat. (1)

A. Gumennik, A. M. Stolyarov, B. R. Schell, C. Hou, G. Lestoquoy, F. Sorin, W. McDaniel, A. Rose, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mat. 24, 6005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Francois, K. J. Rowland, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gregor, C. Pyrlik, R. Henze, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

W. v. Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675(2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) PM suspended in ethanol inside an HC of the MOF. (b) SEM scan of the cleaved end face of the mercedes-type MOF encapsulating a PM (PM eccentricity is due to the SEM perspective). (c) In-MOF resonator excitation and collection setup: in C/S mode the beam of the SCLS injected from microscope objective (A) follows the green path; in S/C mode the beam is injected from objective (B) and follows the light pink path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Upper and middle panels: intensity scattered by the PM and collected in the C/S mode, optimized in four spectral regions, with TM mode identification numbers. Bottom panel: (left) measurement of a high-Q and spectrally resolved resonance obtained using 0.1 nm resolution in the OSA, while fitted with a Lorentzian function; (right) near-infrared spectrum with simulation results for TE (dark) and TM (light) polarization excitation. All intensity scales are linear.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Left panel) Light intensity scattered by the PM and collected in the C/S mode optimized in the near-infrared spectral range, for TE (dark) and TM (light) polarizations. (Right panel) Spectrum of selected TE peak, obtained with 0.1 nm resolution in the OSA. Intensity scales are linear.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Left panel) Experimental fiber output spectrum resulting from the S/C mode coupling (black). (Right panel) Same data compared with simulation (red) for a smaller wavelength range. Intensity scale is linear.

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