Abstract

Strong infrared photoluminescence (PL) was observed for the first time from black Si (b-Si) formed by femtosecond laser irradiation and treated by rapid thermal annealing. The PL peak energy changes from 0.78 to 0.84 eV (1.59 to 1.48 μm) when increasing the annealing temperature from 500°C to 1200°C, showing a tunable property. Compared to those after annealing at 1000°C, both the peak intensity and the peak energy change slightly after annealing at higher temperatures of 1100°C and 1200°C, showing a high thermal stability of their structures and PL properties. With the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results from the b-Si before and after etching in KOH solution, the PL is attributed to dislocation-related (D1) luminescence rather than sulfur-related impurity center luminescence. The integrated intensity of D1 PL as a function of excitation power can be fitted by IPm with m of 0.58, suggesting that the PL of the b-Si sample originates from the recombination of bound-to-bound states. The high thermal activation energy of 75.2 meV suggests a high quenching temperature of D1 PL, showing a potential of application at room temperature. This work may promote the progress of research on b-Si in the area of Si-based optoelectronics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Tokuda and E. Yagyu, Nat. Photonics 3, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Hoyer, M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and E. B. Kley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

V. Kveder, M. Kittler, and W. Schröter, Phys. Rev. B 63, 115208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. T. Collins, P. M. Fauchet, and M. A. Tishler, Phys. Today 50(1), 24 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

T. G. Brown, P. L. Bradfield, and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1585 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, T.

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arthursson, Ö.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M. J.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

P. Hoyer, M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and E. B. Kley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradfield, P. L.

T. G. Brown, P. L. Bradfield, and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1585 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

T. G. Brown, P. L. Bradfield, and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1585 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Cary, J. E.

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. T.

R. T. Collins, P. M. Fauchet, and M. A. Tishler, Phys. Today 50(1), 24 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Davies, G.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Fauchet, P. M.

R. T. Collins, P. M. Fauchet, and M. A. Tishler, Phys. Today 50(1), 24 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frederiksen, H.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F. Y.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Hagberg, M.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

T. G. Brown, P. L. Bradfield, and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1585 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoyer, P.

P. Hoyer, M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and E. B. Kley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inanç, I.

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ittermann, B.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeyanathan, L.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kalem, S.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kanehira, S.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Kittler, M.

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Kveder, M. Kittler, and W. Schröter, Phys. Rev. B 63, 115208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

P. Hoyer, M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and E. B. Kley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, A.

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kveder, V.

V. Kveder, M. Kittler, and W. Schröter, Phys. Rev. B 63, 115208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, J. A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Lightowlers, E. C.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lischka, K.

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mankovics, D.

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mason, P. W.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Mchedlidze, T.

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilisson, B.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, B.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ostapenko, S. S.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ratzke, M.

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rozgonyi, G. A.

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, R. P.

R. P. Schmid, D. Mankovics, T. Arguirov, M. Ratzke, T. Mchedlidze, and M. Kittler, Phys. Status Solidi. A 208, 888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T.

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, W.

V. Kveder, M. Kittler, and W. Schröter, Phys. Rev. B 63, 115208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serpengüzel, A.

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Södervall, U.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, L.

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. J.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Talalaev, V.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

P. Hoyer, M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and E. B. Kley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tishler, M. A.

R. T. Collins, P. M. Fauchet, and M. A. Tishler, Phys. Today 50(1), 24 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda and E. Yagyu, Nat. Photonics 3, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warrender, J. M.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, G. D.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Werner, P.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Yagyu, E.

Y. Tokuda and E. Yagyu, Nat. Photonics 3, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Yu, X.

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

Zulehner, W.

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoyer, M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and E. B. Kley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).

T. G. Brown, P. L. Bradfield, and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1585 (1987).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, L. Song, D. Yang, M. Kittler, and G. A. Rozgonyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Chen, J. Si, X. Hou, S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton.

A. Serpengüzel, A. Kurt, I. Inanç, J. E. Cary, and E. Mazur, J. Nanophoton. 2, 021770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

S. Kalem, P. Werner, M. Hagberg, B. Nilisson, V. Talalaev, Ö. Arthursson, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

S. Kalem, P. Werner, Ö. Arthursson, V. Talalaev, B. Nilsson, M. Hagberg, H. Frederiksen, and U. Södervall, Nanotechnology 22, 235307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Tokuda and E. Yagyu, Nat. Photonics 3, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. Kveder, M. Kittler, and W. Schröter, Phys. Rev. B 63, 115208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8989 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the b-Si surface formed by fs laser radiation in SF6 gas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) PL spectra of the b-Si samples unannealed and annealed at different temperatures, (b) PL spectra of b-Si samples unannealed and annealed at 500°C, (c) Integrated PL intensity, and (d) PL peak energy as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) XPS spectra of S 2 s and (b) PL spectra from the samples before and after etching in KOH solution, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) PL spectra of the b-Si sample at different excitation powers from 6 to 590 mW. (b) Integrated PL intensity as a function of the excitation power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Integrated PL intensity as a function of reciprocal of temperature. (b) Integrated PL intensity and peak energy as a function of temperature in the range of 15 to 50 K.

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