Abstract

Simultaneous monitoring of multiple combustion intermediates using femtosecond filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy is demonstrated. Clean fluorescence emissions from free radicals CH, CN, NH, OH, and C2, as well as atomic C and H, are observed when a femtosecond filament is formed in the laminar ethanol/air flame on an alcohol burner. The fluorescence signals of these species are found to vary as functions of the position of interaction of the filament with the flame along the vertical axis of the central combusting flow, opening up a possibility for remote combustion diagnostic in engines by the excitation of femtosecond laser filament.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (3)

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kotzagianni and S. Couris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 264104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

Y. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Nano Today 5(5), 435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahesh and D. P. Mishra, Fuel 89, 2145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Ackermann, R.

Alden, M.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, J.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Bruno, A.

Châteauneuf, M.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Chen, Q. D.

Y. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Nano Today 5(5), 435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, Sensors 11, 32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2010).

Couairon, A.

Couris, S.

M. Kotzagianni and S. Couris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 264104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D’Alessio, A.

Daigle, J.-F.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Lisio, C.

Dubois, J.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

Franco, M.

Gaydon, A. G.

R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra, 4th ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1976).

Gord, J. R.

Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

Keller, U.

Kiefer, J.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kotzagianni, M.

M. Kotzagianni and S. Couris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 264104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulatilaka, W. D.

Leipertz, A.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahesh, S.

S. Mahesh and D. P. Mishra, Fuel 89, 2145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marceau, C.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, P.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 31, 86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minutolo, P.

Mishra, D. P.

S. Mahesh and D. P. Mishra, Fuel 89, 2145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Ossler, F.

Pearse, R. W. B.

R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra, 4th ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1976).

Peng, J.

Roy, G.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

Salmon, E.

Seeger, T.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simard, J. R.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

Stauffer, H. U.

Sun, H. B.

Y. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Nano Today 5(5), 435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

Svanberg, S.

S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy: Basic Principles and Practical Applications, 4th ed. (Springer, 2004).

Théberge, F.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tröger, J. W.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wolf, J.-P.

Xia, H.

Y. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Nano Today 5(5), 435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, Sensors 11, 32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

Yang, X.

Yi, Y.

Yu, J.

Yu, X.

Zhang, Y. L.

Y. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Nano Today 5(5), 435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kotzagianni and S. Couris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 264104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. Li, T. Seeger, M. Alden, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 159, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuel (1)

S. Mahesh and D. P. Mishra, Fuel 89, 2145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, Laser Phys. 22, 1767 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Today (1)

Y. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Nano Today 5(5), 435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sensors (1)

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, Sensors 11, 32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy: Basic Principles and Practical Applications, 4th ed. (Springer, 2004).

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2010).

R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra, 4th ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1976).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectrum of the ethanol/air flame on an alcohol burner by the excitation of a femtosecond filament. Insets: (a) flame and the filament positions marked by the dash lines, (b) zoomed-in spectrum in the range of 303–340 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Filament-induced spectra recorded in different positions of the flame above the burner wick.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Signal intensities of C2, CN, C, and CH, obtained at different positions of the flame. (b) and (c) Signal intensities and spectra of NH and N2.

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