Abstract

Simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals are obtained from individual polystyrene latex microspheres dispersed in an air flow. Microspheres less than 1 μm mean diameter were doped with two organic fluorescent dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF), intended either to provide improved particle-based flow velocimetry in the vicinity of surfaces or to provide scalar flow information (e.g., marking one of two fluid streams). Both dyes exhibit measureable fluorescence signals that are on the order of 103 to 104 times weaker than the simultaneously measured Mie signals. It is determined that at the conditions measured, 95.5% of RhB LIF signals and 32.2% of DCF signals provide valid laser-Doppler velocimetry measurements compared with the Mie scattering validation rate with 6.5 W of 532 nm excitation, while RhB excited with 1.0 W incident laser power still exhibits 95.4% valid velocimetry signals from the LIF channel. The results suggest that the method is applicable to wind tunnel measurements near walls where laser flare can be a limiting factor and monodisperse particles are essential.

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  1. P. Tiemsin and C. Wohl, “Refined synthesis and characterization of controlled diameter, narrow size distribution microparticles for aerospace research applications,” NASA Technical Memorandum, TM-2012-217591 (2012).
  2. W. H. Stevenson, R. dos Santos, and S. C. Mettler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 395 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Koochesfahani and D. G. Nocera, Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Dynamics (Springer, 2007).
  5. P. Dunand, G. Castanet, and F. Lemoine, Exp. Fluids 52, 843 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Brubach, A. Patt, and A. Dreizler, Appl. Phys. B 83, 499 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Dunand, G. Castanet, and F. Lemoine, Exp. Fluids 52, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Brubach, A. Patt, and A. Dreizler, Appl. Phys. B 83, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. H. Stevenson, R. dos Santos, and S. C. Mettler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 395 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brubach, J.

J. Brubach, A. Patt, and A. Dreizler, Appl. Phys. B 83, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castanet, G.

P. Dunand, G. Castanet, and F. Lemoine, Exp. Fluids 52, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, S.

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, R.

W. H. Stevenson, R. dos Santos, and S. C. Mettler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 395 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dreizler, A.

J. Brubach, A. Patt, and A. Dreizler, Appl. Phys. B 83, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunand, P.

P. Dunand, G. Castanet, and F. Lemoine, Exp. Fluids 52, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. L.

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, A. A.

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ha, S. M.

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hochareon, P.

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koochesfahani, M. M.

M. M. Koochesfahani and D. G. Nocera, Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Dynamics (Springer, 2007).

Lemoine, F.

P. Dunand, G. Castanet, and F. Lemoine, Exp. Fluids 52, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manning, K. B.

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

W. H. Stevenson, R. dos Santos, and S. C. Mettler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 395 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nocera, D. G.

M. M. Koochesfahani and D. G. Nocera, Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Dynamics (Springer, 2007).

Okamoto, K.

S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Owen, J. F.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Patt, A.

J. Brubach, A. Patt, and A. Dreizler, Appl. Phys. B 83, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samimy, M.

W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sethuram, S.

W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shinpaugh, K. A.

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R. L.

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Someya, S.

S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, W. H.

W. H. Stevenson, R. dos Santos, and S. C. Mettler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 395 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tarbell, J. M.

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tiemsin, P.

P. Tiemsin and C. Wohl, “Refined synthesis and characterization of controlled diameter, narrow size distribution microparticles for aerospace research applications,” NASA Technical Memorandum, TM-2012-217591 (2012).

Wicks, A. L.

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wohl, C.

P. Tiemsin and C. Wohl, “Refined synthesis and characterization of controlled diameter, narrow size distribution microparticles for aerospace research applications,” NASA Technical Memorandum, TM-2012-217591 (2012).

AIAA J. (1)

W. R. Lempert, N. Jiang, S. Sethuram, and M. Samimy, AIAA J. 40, 1065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Brubach, A. Patt, and A. Dreizler, Appl. Phys. B 83, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. H. Stevenson, R. dos Santos, and S. C. Mettler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 395 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (3)

S. Someya, Y. Li, K. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, Exp. Fluids 50, 65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dunand, G. Castanet, and F. Lemoine, Exp. Fluids 52, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Shinpaugh, R. L. Simpson, A. L. Wicks, S. M. Ha, and J. L. Fleming, Exp. Fluids 12, 319 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. Eng. (1)

P. Hochareon, K. B. Manning, A. A. Fontaine, J. M. Tarbell, and S. Deutsch, J. Biomech. Eng. 126, 430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Tiemsin and C. Wohl, “Refined synthesis and characterization of controlled diameter, narrow size distribution microparticles for aerospace research applications,” NASA Technical Memorandum, TM-2012-217591 (2012).

M. M. Koochesfahani and D. G. Nocera, Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Dynamics (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fluorescence emission spectra for RhB and DCF doped into PSLs. A narrowband optical filter at 532 nm blocks light at the laser wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sample signals for particle passages through the fringes. Solid curves, Mie PMT; dashed, LIF PMT; top, undoped; middle, RhB; bottom, DCF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the velocimetry SNR1 for RhB (red circles) and DCF (black x’s) excited with 6.5 W and RhB (green squares) excited with 1.0 W of 532 nm laser light. In the shaded region, both the Mie scattering and LIF produce usable signals for velocimetry.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Characteristics of the PSLs Used in the Present Study

Equations (1)

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SNR1=10log10Nσsignal2σnoise2,

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