Abstract

A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Tunick, Opt. Express 15, 14115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Jiang, J. Ma, L. Tan, S. Yu, and W. Du, Opt. Express 16, 6963 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kleissl, O. K. Hartogensis, and J. D. Gomez, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 137, 493 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Chiba, Appl. Opt. 10, 2456 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Sergeyev and M. C. Roggemann, Appl. Opt. 50, 3519 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T.-i. Wang, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 334 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, Opt. Commun. 242, 333 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Pfeifer, M. König, and B. Koch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 163 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Rasouli and M. T. Tavassoly, Opt. Lett. 31, 3276 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. 5, 487 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, Opt. Lett. 30, 1986 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Ortyl and S. Kucharski, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 1, 137 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Mega, M. Robitaille, R. Zareian, J. McLean, J. Ruberti, and C. DiMarzio, Opt. Lett. 37, 3312 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

J. Kleissl, O. K. Hartogensis, and J. D. Gomez, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 137, 493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, Opt. Commun. 242, 333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ortyl and S. Kucharski, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 1, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. 5, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

Barbier, P. R.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

Barrett, C. J.

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. 5, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burdge, G. L.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

Clifford, S. F.

Consortini, A.

A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dabos-Seignon, S.

DiMarzio, C.

Du, W.

Golbraikh, E.

E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, Opt. Commun. 242, 333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, J. D.

J. Kleissl, O. K. Hartogensis, and J. D. Gomez, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 137, 493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hartogensis, O. K.

J. Kleissl, O. K. Hartogensis, and J. D. Gomez, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 137, 493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, C.

A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jankevics, A. J.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Kandjani, S. A.

Kleissl, J.

J. Kleissl, O. K. Hartogensis, and J. D. Gomez, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 137, 493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B.

König, M.

Kopeika, N. S.

E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, Opt. Commun. 242, 333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kucharski, S.

Levine, B. M.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. P.

A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Martinsen, E. A.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McLean, J.

Mega, Y.

Nunzi, J.-M.

Ochs, G. R.

Ortyl, E.

Pfeifer, H. J.

Polak-Dingels, P.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rasouli, S.

Robitaille, M.

Roggemann, M. C.

Ruberti, J.

Rush, D. W.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sergeyev, A. V.

Sun, Y. Y.

A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L.

Tavassoly, M. T.

Tunick, A.

Wang, T.-i.

Wirth, A.

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yager, K. G.

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. 5, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

Zareian, R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. (1)

J. Kleissl, O. K. Hartogensis, and J. D. Gomez, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 137, 493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cent. Eur. J. Chem. (1)

E. Ortyl and S. Kucharski, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 1, 137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. (1)

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. 5, 487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, Opt. Commun. 242, 333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Consortini, Y. Y. Sun, C. Innocenti, and Z. P. Li, Opt. Commun. 216, 19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. R. Barbier, P. Polak-Dingels, D. W. Rush, G. L. Burdge, B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, and A. J. Jankevics, Proc. SPIE 3125, 284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diffraction pattern observed with a CCD camera for two different gratings for turbulences: (A) Cn2=1.4×1012m2/3 and (B) Cn2=4.1×1012m2/3. The reference inserted corresponds to propagation without turbulence.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of photoinduced SRGs on azopolymer thin films obtained for different conditions of the turbulence during the propagation of the laser beam with (A) Cn2=1.4×1012m2/3 and (B) Cn2=4.1×1012m2/3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Summation of the intensity pixels on a line of the 2D FT with a rotation from 0° to 90°, and starting at the center of the diffraction intensity for four different conditions of turbulence.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RT of the 2D Fourier transform of SRGs obtained for turbulences with Cn2=9.4×1013, 1.4×1012, 3.77×1012, 4.1×1012m2/3. The reference is the RT of the SRG without turbulence.

Metrics