Abstract

We present a highly reproducible method of producing terahertz (THz) optical pulses using a class of mode-locked AlGaInAs/InP laser operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength range. The device uses a sample grating distributed Bragg reflector to provide strong frequency selectivity at the mode-locked frequency while the distributed reflectors relax the fabrication tolerances and ensure the cavity can self adjust to being an integral number of mode-locked periods in length. The measured devices provide nearly transform-limited pulse trains at 640 GHz or 1.28 THz with a high degree of controllability and operate with consistent performance over a wide range of drive conditions. Being low cost and compact sources of THz radiation, these lasers will open up many applications, including systems for high-speed optical communication and THz imaging.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. K. Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 143 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, and T. Ishibashi, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 123 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, and Y. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1211 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nakura and Y. Nakano, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 488 (2000).
  9. J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. K. Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, and T. Ishibashi, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Nakura and Y. Nakano, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 488 (2000).

1996

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, and Y. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arahira, S.

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, and Y. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, E. A.

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bandelow, U.

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, A. C.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. S.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dylewicz, R.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, J.

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, R.

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haji, M.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. D.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hüttl, B.

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, and T. Ishibashi, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, and T. Ishibashi, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Javaloyes, J.

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klehr, A.

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matalla, M.

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, Y.

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, and Y. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McDougall, S. D.

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mindaugas, R.

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

T. K. Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, and T. Ishibashi, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

T. Nakura and Y. Nakano, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 488 (2000).

Nakura, T.

T. Nakura and Y. Nakano, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 488 (2000).

Ogawa, Y.

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, and Y. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ostmann, T. K.

T. K. Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, B.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stolarz, P.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Street, M. W.

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thayne, I. G.

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, A.

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, H.

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yanson, D. A.

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, and Y. Ogawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Yanson, M. W. Street, S. D. McDougall, I. G. Thayne, J. H. Marsh, and E. A. Avrutin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Wang, X. S. Chen, W. D. Hu, and W. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Hou, R. Dylewicz, M. Haji, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, P. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, R. Green, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, and A. C. Bryce, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

T. Nakura and Y. Nakano, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 488 (2000).

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves

T. K. Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, and T. Ishibashi, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

U. Bandelow, R. Mindaugas, A. Vladimirov, B. Hüttl, and R. Kaiser, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Matalla, A. Klehr, and G. Erbert, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 1149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the entire device, (b) configuration of the SG-DBR, (c) SEM picture of the first-order sidewall gratings with a 0.6 μm recess, and (d) simulation of sample grating power reflectivity plotted against wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured average output power from the SA side as a function of gain current for different SG-DBR currents (from 0 to 40 mA with a step of 10 mA) under VSA=0V and 3V, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Device performance under the operation conditions of VSA=3V, ISG=0mA: (a) 2D optical spectra from the SA side as a function of gain current, (b) optical spectrum at the point of IGain=192mA, (c) corresponding autocorrelation traces showing ML Fr of 637 GHz, and (d) an isolated AC pulse fitted in red by a sech2 pulse shape.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Device performance under the operation conditions of VSA=2.3V, ISG=10mA: (a) 2D optical spectra from SA side as a function of gain current, (b) optical spectrum at the point of IGain=300mA, (c) corresponding autocorrelation traces showing ML Fr of 1.28 THz, and (d) an isolated AC pulse fitted in red by a sech2 pulse shape.

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