Abstract

Values for the bulk viscosity ηb of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (λ=366.8nm) and at a 90° scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yields values showing a linear increasing trend, ranging from ηb=0.7×105 to 2.0×105kg·m1·s1 in the temperature interval from 255 to 340 K. The present values, pertaining to hypersound acoustics at frequencies in the gigahertz domain, are found to be in agreement with results from acoustic attenuation experiments in N2 performed at megahertz frequencies.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

Z. Y. Gu, M. O. Vieitez, E. J. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Cornella, S. F. Gimelshein, M. N. Shneider, T. C. Lilly, and A. D. Ketsdever, Opt. Express 20, 12975 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Witschas, M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, O. Reitebuch, W. van de Water, and W. Ubachs, Appl. Opt. 49, 4217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 71, 045801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

R. E. Graves and B. M. Argow, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 13, 337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1974 (1)

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

1973 (1)

G. J. Prangsma, A. H. Alberga, and J. J. M. Beenakker, Physica 64, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

C. D. Boley, R. C. Desai, and G. Tenti, Can. J. Phys. 50, 2158 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

H. O. Kneser, Ann. Phys. 408, 337 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Alberga, A. H.

G. J. Prangsma, A. H. Alberga, and J. J. M. Beenakker, Physica 64, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Argow, B. M.

R. E. Graves and B. M. Argow, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 13, 337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beenakker, J. J. M.

G. J. Prangsma, A. H. Alberga, and J. J. M. Beenakker, Physica 64, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Boley, C. D.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

C. D. Boley, R. C. Desai, and G. Tenti, Can. J. Phys. 50, 2158 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Cornella, B. M.

Dai, R.

Dam, N. J.

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Wijn, A. S.

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Desai, R. C.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

C. D. Boley, R. C. Desai, and G. Tenti, Can. J. Phys. 50, 2158 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gimelshein, S. F.

Gong, W.

Graves, R. E.

R. E. Graves and B. M. Argow, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 13, 337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Gu, M. O. Vieitez, E. J. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ingard, K. U.

P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (Princeton University, 1986).

Kattawar, G. W.

Ketsdever, A. D.

Kneser, H. O.

H. O. Kneser, Ann. Phys. 408, 337 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics(Pergamon, 1959).

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics(Pergamon, 1959).

Lilly, T. C.

Liu, D.

Meijer, A. S.

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 71, 045801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morse, P. M.

P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (Princeton University, 1986).

Pan, X. G.

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 71, 045801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. F. E.

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prangsma, G. J.

G. J. Prangsma, A. H. Alberga, and J. J. M. Beenakker, Physica 64, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Reitebuch, O.

Ren, X.

Shneider, M. N.

B. M. Cornella, S. F. Gimelshein, M. N. Shneider, T. C. Lilly, and A. D. Ketsdever, Opt. Express 20, 12975 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 71, 045801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tenti, G.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

C. D. Boley, R. C. Desai, and G. Tenti, Can. J. Phys. 50, 2158 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

Z. Y. Gu, M. O. Vieitez, E. J. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Witschas, M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, O. Reitebuch, W. van de Water, and W. Ubachs, Appl. Opt. 49, 4217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van de Water, W.

B. Witschas, M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, O. Reitebuch, W. van de Water, and W. Ubachs, Appl. Opt. 49, 4217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Duijn, E. J.

Z. Y. Gu, M. O. Vieitez, E. J. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Duijn, E.-J.

B. Witschas, M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, O. Reitebuch, W. van de Water, and W. Ubachs, Appl. Opt. 49, 4217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vieitez, M. O.

Z. Y. Gu, M. O. Vieitez, E. J. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Witschas, M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, O. Reitebuch, W. van de Water, and W. Ubachs, Appl. Opt. 49, 4217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, F. M.

F. M. White, Viscous Fluid Flow (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

Witschas, B.

B. Witschas, M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, O. Reitebuch, W. van de Water, and W. Ubachs, Appl. Opt. 49, 4217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Young, A. T.

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. O. Kneser, Ann. Phys. 408, 337 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Can. J. Phys. (2)

C. D. Boley, R. C. Desai, and G. Tenti, Can. J. Phys. 50, 2158 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, M. F. E. Peters, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer (1)

R. E. Graves and B. M. Argow, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 13, 337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 71, 045801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Pan, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Vieitez, E.-J. van Duijn, W. Ubachs, B. Witschas, A. S. Meijer, A. S. de Wijn, N. J. Dam, and W. van de Water, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Physica (1)

G. J. Prangsma, A. H. Alberga, and J. J. M. Beenakker, Physica 64, 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Z. Y. Gu, M. O. Vieitez, E. J. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 053112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

F. M. White, Viscous Fluid Flow (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics(Pergamon, 1959).

P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (Princeton University, 1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

RB scattering profiles (black dots) as measured for various (p, T) pressure–temperature combinations as specified. A comparison is made with calculations via the Tenti S6 model (red lines), convolved for the instrument width of 232 MHz and for values of the bulk viscosity ηb, deduced from the profiles recorded at 3 bar. Residuals between the measurements and the calculations are given underneath.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental RB scattering profile in N2 for 3.40 bar and 336.6 K (black dots), and convolved Tenti S6 calculations for bulk viscosity being 1.0×105 (green line), 2.0×105 (red line), and 3.0×105 (yellow line) kg·m1·s1, respectively. (b) Residuals between measured and calculated scattering profiles for these three values of bulk viscosity. (c) Plot of χ2 as a function of bulk viscosity. The optimized value of bulk viscosity is found at the minimum of χ2, with the gray area indicating the estimated statistical error, calculated according to procedures discussed in [12,18].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of bulk viscosity measured from different experiments. Note that the result of Pan et al. [11] overlays a data point by Prangsma et al. [4]. Data of Vieitez et al. [12] and Meijer et al. [18] also included.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Transport Coefficients used for Modeling the RB Profiles of N2a

Equations (2)

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ΩB=±2nωvcsinθ2,
ΓB=1ρυ2[43ηs+ηb+κCp(γ1)]ΩB2,

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