Abstract

We report the pulse duration and wavelength stability measurements of a midinfrared free-electron laser (FEL) where the wavelength fluctuation may not be negligible. The technique we employ is a fringe-resolved autocorrelation (FRAC) method that has good sensitivity on not only the pulse duration and the chirp but also the wavelength stability. By the simple manipulation of experimental FRAC signals, we can obtain the pulse duration even if the amounts of the chirp and the wavelength stability are not known in advance, which is further used to estimate the wavelength stability. Through this procedure we find that the pulse duration of the Kyoto University FEL at 12 μm is about 0.58 ps without any notable chirp, and the wavelength stability is about 1.3%. We also carry out separate experiments for intensity autocorrelation and sum-frequency mixing. The difference we find for pulse duration and wavelength stability by the different measurements is attributed to the different operation conditions of FEL.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Tully, Science 312, 1004 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrafast Phenomena(Academic, 1996).
  5. J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Opt. Lett. 37, 5148 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Opt. Lett. 37, 5148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. C. Tully, Science 312, 1004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C.

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrafast Phenomena(Academic, 1996).

Drachenko, O.

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freund, H. P.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Opt. Lett. 37, 5148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kinjo, R.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knippels, G. M. H.

J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Opt. Lett. 37, 5148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P. G.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oepts, D.

J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohgaki, H.

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Opt. Lett. 37, 5148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Y.

Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrafast Phenomena(Academic, 1996).

Sasaki, S.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiiyama, T.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tully, J. C.

J. C. Tully, Science 312, 1004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Winnerl, S.

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, K.

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zen, H.

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Opt. Lett. 37, 5148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Maier, and M. Walther, Infrared Phys. Technol. 50, 95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Qin, T. Nakajima, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 102704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohgaki, T. Kii, K. Masuda, H. Zen, S. Sasaki, T. Shiiyama, R. Kinjo, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Yamazaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, G. M. H. Knippels, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, Opt. Commun. 197, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Tully, Science 312, 1004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrafast Phenomena(Academic, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the FRAC measurement. BS, M, L, NC, and SP represent the beam splitter, mirror, focusing lens, nonlinear crystal, and short-pass filter. MS, RD, and SD stand for the motorized stage, reference signal detector, and signal detector, respectively. The inset shows the pulse structure of the KU-FEL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FRAC signals of KU-FEL at 12 μm. (a) Entire signals and (b) blow-up signals around delay zero. In graph (a) the rapidly oscillating lines and zig-zag lines represent the measured FRAC signals and its upper and lower envelopes, respectively, while the slowly varying lines represent the fitted envelopes. The fitted values are α=0% and σ=1.31%.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) IAC signals of KU-FEL at 12 μm (black dots) and the fitted curve (red line) assuming a Gaussian temporal shape. (b) Distribution of the FEL central wavelength measured by the SFM technique [9] at 11μm.

Equations (4)

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E(k)(t)=exp[2(tτ0)211iαln2]×exp[i(a(k)ω0t+ϕ(k)(t))],
SFRAC(τ)=[E(t)+E(tτ)]4dt=1+4exp[(3+α2)τ2ln22τp2σ2ω02τ22]×cos(α2τ2ln22τp2)cos(ω0τ)+2exp(2τ2ln2τp2)+exp(2(1+α2)τ2ln2τp22σ2ω02τ2)cos(2ω0τ),
SFRAC(τ)1dτ=2πln2τp,
τp=ln22πΔτi=1nSFRAC(τi)1,

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