Abstract

We report on the demonstration of real-time refractive index sensing within 60 μm thick free-standing macroporous alumina membranes with pore diameters of 200 nm. The free-standing macroporous alumina membranes allow the analytes to flow through the pores for targeted delivery, resulting in fast sensing responses. The polarimetric measurement platform exploits the optical anisotropy of the membranes in monitoring the refractive index variations of the analytes that fill the pores, providing highly sensitive and real-time measurements. The experimental characterization of the membranes’ birefringence at wavelengths of 808, 980, and 1500 nm showed a decrease in birefringence for shorter wavelengths caused by the depolarization process that takes place when polarized light passes through a porous medium. Volumetric sensing experiments performed at the same wavelengths demonstrated detection limits of 8.1×106, 5.2×106, and 6×106 refractive index units at wavelengths of 808, 980, and 1500 nm, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. Lechuga, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 463 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
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  8. T. Kumeria and D. Losic, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 88 (2012).
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  9. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (6)

M. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. Lechuga, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Tsang, T. L. Kelly, M. J. Sailor, and Y. Y. Li, ACS Nano 6, 10546 (2012).

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kumeria and D. Losic, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 88 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, I. Suárez, N. Kumar, D. Hill, V. Chirvony, L. Pavesi, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Opt. Express 19, 26106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Hill, BioNanoScience 1, 162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Lazzara, I. Mey, C. Steinem, and A. Janshoff, Anal. Chem. 83, 5624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. M. Orosco, C. Pacholski, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M.

M. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. Lechuga, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, S. D.

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez, J.

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, I. Suárez, N. Kumar, D. Hill, V. Chirvony, L. Pavesi, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Opt. Express 19, 26106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bettotti, P.

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, I. Suárez, N. Kumar, D. Hill, V. Chirvony, L. Pavesi, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Opt. Express 19, 26106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brand, S.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C.

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chirvony, V.

Cross, H.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danailov, M.

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diener, K. R.

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Estevez, M.

M. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. Lechuga, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, N. J.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S.

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hill, D.

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, I. Suárez, N. Kumar, D. Hill, V. Chirvony, L. Pavesi, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Opt. Express 19, 26106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Hill, BioNanoScience 1, 162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janshoff, A.

T. Lazzara, I. Mey, C. Steinem, and A. Janshoff, Anal. Chem. 83, 5624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, T. L.

C. K. Tsang, T. L. Kelly, M. J. Sailor, and Y. Y. Li, ACS Nano 6, 10546 (2012).

Kumar, N.

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, I. Suárez, N. Kumar, D. Hill, V. Chirvony, L. Pavesi, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Opt. Express 19, 26106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumeria, T.

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kumeria and D. Losic, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 88 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kurkuri, M. D.

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lazzara, T.

T. Lazzara, I. Mey, C. Steinem, and A. Janshoff, Anal. Chem. 83, 5624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L.

M. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. Lechuga, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Y.

C. K. Tsang, T. L. Kelly, M. J. Sailor, and Y. Y. Li, ACS Nano 6, 10546 (2012).

Losic, D.

T. Kumeria and D. Losic, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 88 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. R.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lutich, A.

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Pastor, J.

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Pastor, J.

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, I. Suárez, N. Kumar, D. Hill, V. Chirvony, L. Pavesi, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Opt. Express 19, 26106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mey, I.

T. Lazzara, I. Mey, C. Steinem, and A. Janshoff, Anal. Chem. 83, 5624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nittoor, V. R.

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orosco, M. M.

M. M. Orosco, C. Pacholski, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pacholski, C.

M. M. Orosco, C. Pacholski, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parkinson, L.

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

Peel, L. L.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K.

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

C. K. Tsang, T. L. Kelly, M. J. Sailor, and Y. Y. Li, ACS Nano 6, 10546 (2012).

M. M. Orosco, C. Pacholski, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, I. K.

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shelar, H. S.

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sokol, V.

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinem, C.

T. Lazzara, I. Mey, C. Steinem, and A. Janshoff, Anal. Chem. 83, 5624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suarez, I.

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suárez, I.

Swann, M.

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. K.

C. K. Tsang, T. L. Kelly, M. J. Sailor, and Y. Y. Li, ACS Nano 6, 10546 (2012).

Volchek, S.

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yakovtseva, V.

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A.

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (2)

C. K. Tsang, T. L. Kelly, M. J. Sailor, and Y. Y. Li, ACS Nano 6, 10546 (2012).

S. D. Alvarez, C. Li, C. Chiang, I. K. Schuller, and M. J. Sailor, ACS Nano 3, 3301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Lazzara, I. Mey, C. Steinem, and A. Janshoff, Anal. Chem. 83, 5624 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Lutich, M. Danailov, S. Volchek, V. Yakovtseva, V. Sokol, and S. Gaponenko, Appl. Phys. B 84, 327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T. Chang, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, H. Li, K. Reddy, H. S. Shelar, V. R. Nittoor, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 041104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

BioNanoScience (1)

D. Hill, BioNanoScience 1, 162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

T. Kumeria, M. D. Kurkuri, K. R. Diener, L. Parkinson, and D. Losic, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Álvarez, N. Kumar, P. Bettotti, D. Hill, and J. Martinez-Pastor, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, M. Swann, L. L. Peel, N. J. Freeman, and J. R. Lu, J. Phys. D 37, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. Lechuga, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

T. Kumeria and D. Losic, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 88 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

M. M. Orosco, C. Pacholski, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Álvarez, P. Bettotti, N. Kumar, I. Suarez, D. Hill, and J. Martínez-Pastor, Proc. SPIE 8212, 821209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polarimetric setup used for optical anisotropy characterization of the free-standing macroporous AAO membranes. The inset shows a picture of a macroporous AAO membrane mounted on an aluminum substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sensorgram showing the signal response due to flowing through the macroporous AAO membrane different solutions of NaCl in DIW when using laser diodes with wavelengths of (a) 808 nm, (b) 980 nm, and (c) 1500 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase retardation change as a function of the refractive index of the NaCl solutions flowing through the macroporous AAO membrane.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δϕ=arctan(V1fV2f·J2(A0)J1(A0)),
Δϕ=2πλd·Δn,
DL[RIU]=σ[rad]/S[rad/RIU].

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