Abstract

Toward mid-infrared (mid-IR) silicon microphotonic circuits, we demonstrate broadband on-chip silicon structures, such as: (i) straight and bent waveguides and (ii) beam splitters, utilizing an air-clad pedestal configuration which eliminates the need for typical mid-IR-lossy oxide cladding. We illustrate a sophisticated fabrication process that can create high-quality pedestal structures in crystalline silicon, while preserving its mid-IR transparency. A fundamental waveguide mode is observed between λ=2.5μm and λ=3.7μm, and an optical loss of 2.7dB/cm is obtained at λ=3.7μm. Our pedestal silicon structures show 5050 mid-IR power splitting enabling the further development of mid-IR silicon microphotonics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
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Crnjanski, J.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Giusca, C.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, Opt. Express 19, 7112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, Opt. Express 19, 7112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Miloševic, M. M.

Moghe, Y.

Moss, D. J.

Nedeljkovic, M.

O’Brien, C.

Okawachi, Y.

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X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
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R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
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Spott, A.

Stankovic, S.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, Opt. Express 19, 7112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, Opt. Express 19, 7112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Webster, F. X.

R. M. Silverstein, F. X. Webster, and D. Kiemle, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds(Wiley, 2005).

Wei, Y.

White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, B.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yang, P. Y.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Ozhikandathil and M. Packirisamy, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 017006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20, 159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Lab On Chip (1)

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing, and X. Fan, Lab On Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photonics 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1997).

H. Gunzler and H. U. Gremlich, IR Spectroscopy: An Introduction (Wiley-VCH, 2002).

R. M. Silverstein, F. X. Webster, and D. Kiemle, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds(Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication scheme to create pedestal silicon waveguides and splitters. (a) Patterns of waveguide and splitter are generated on oxide-on-silicon wafer by photolithography. (b) Patterns are transferred sequentially into SiO2 and Si layers using ICP-RIE. (c) A thin oxide layer is conformally deposited on the sample using PECVD. (d) Oxide is anisotropically and preferentially etched back using ICP-RIE. (e) Undercut of silicon waveguide using SF6 gas. (f) Oxide is removed by BOE. The structure parameters, waveguide width w, waveguide height h, lift-off length s, and the notch width d, are labeled.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the fabricated air-clad silicon pedestal mid-IR devices: (a) Straight waveguides, (b) magnified image, (c) rotated at 45° to inspect the waveguide sidewall, (d) enlarged image, (e) waveguide that has a paper clip shape with a radius of curvature of 50 μm, and (f) Y-branch beam splitters. The yellow boxes indicate the magnified features.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Refractive index profile of pedestal structure used for the FDM mode calculation. The yellow box indicates the light source. (b) The field profiles of the waveguide at λ=2.7μm, λ=3.2μm and λ=3.7μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental setup to characterize the performance of fabricated mid-IR devices. (b) The probe light is butt coupled into the waveguide from a single-mode fluoride fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Mode profiles of pedestal silicon waveguides captured by the mid-IR camera at λ=2.7μm, λ=3.2μm, and λ=3.7μm. (b) Optical powers from waveguides with different relative length D. By fitting the data, an optical loss of 2.7dB/cm is obtained at λ=3.7μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Mid-IR image from a Y-branch waveguide splitter at λ=3.2μm. (b) The intensity profile across the x axis shows two peaks with identical maximum intensities.

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