Abstract

Bistable hybrid-aligned nematic (HAN) liquid crystal devices (LCDs) with silica nanoparticle-coated polyimide alignment films were investigated. It was observed that the existence of the internal electric field produced from the triboelectrically charged silica nanoparticles layer and impurity ions in the LC reduced the total free energy of the HAN-LCD and stabilized the cell in the homeotropic state. The stable homeotropic state can be switched back to the HAN state by changing the ion distribution through a voltage pulse with proper polarity. The capability of controlling bistability through modification of ion density in the LC layer may have some applications, such as displaying a one-time password requiring a specific stable time.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Sikharulidze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Mazzulla, F. Ciuchi, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Jaklia, L. Almasy, S. Borbely, and L. Rosta, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 509 (1999).

1997 (2)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Murakami and H. Naito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2222 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, W. H. de Jeu, and R. Eidenschink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Ishii, T. Uchida, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 25, 323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

S. Uemura, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 12, 1177 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

S. Uemura, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. A 10, 2155 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Almasy, L.

A. Jaklia, L. Almasy, S. Borbely, and L. Rosta, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 509 (1999).

Baebero, G.

G. Baebero and L. R. Evangelista, An Elementary Course on the Continuum Theory for Nematic Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 2001).

Borbely, S.

A. Jaklia, L. Almasy, S. Borbely, and L. Rosta, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 509 (1999).

Brown, C. V.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, and J. C. Jones, “Bistable nematic liquid crystal device,” U. S. patent 6,249,332(19, June, 2001).

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, and J. C. Jones, “Bistable nematic liquid crystal device,” U. S. patent 6,249,332(19, June, 2001).

Chen, J.-H.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).

Ciuchi, F.

A. Mazzulla, F. Ciuchi, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, A. J.

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Jeu, W. H.

M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, W. H. de Jeu, and R. Eidenschink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dozov, I.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durand, G.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eidenschink, R.

M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, W. H. de Jeu, and R. Eidenschink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Evangelista, L. R.

G. Baebero and L. R. Evangelista, An Elementary Course on the Continuum Theory for Nematic Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 2001).

Horng, L.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-T.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-J.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii, T. Uchida, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 25, 323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jaklia, A.

A. Jaklia, L. Almasy, S. Borbely, and L. Rosta, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 509 (1999).

Jones, J. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, and J. C. Jones, “Bistable nematic liquid crystal device,” U. S. patent 6,249,332(19, June, 2001).

Kreuzer, M.

M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, W. H. de Jeu, and R. Eidenschink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C.-C.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, K.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

A. Mazzulla, F. Ciuchi, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mottram, N. J.

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, S.

S. Murakami and H. Naito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2222 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naito, H.

S. Murakami and H. Naito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2222 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nobili, M.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosta, L.

A. Jaklia, L. Almasy, S. Borbely, and L. Rosta, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 509 (1999).

Sambles, J. R.

A. Mazzulla, F. Ciuchi, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sikharulidze, D.

D. Sikharulidze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Sikharulidze, “Bistable nematic liquid crystal display device,” U. S. patent 7,430,030 (30, September, 2008).

Song, H.-C.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, C.-J.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C.-J.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, W. H. de Jeu, and R. Eidenschink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, Y.-H.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

Y. Ishii, T. Uchida, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 25, 323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, S.

S. Uemura, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 12, 1177 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Uemura, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. A 10, 2155 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

Y. Ishii, T. Uchida, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 25, 323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-W.

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-T.

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Sikharulidze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Huang, C.-C. Lai, Y.-H. Tseng, Y.-T. Yang, C.-J. Tien, and K.-Y. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, W. H. de Jeu, and R. Eidenschink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

A. Jaklia, L. Almasy, S. Borbely, and L. Rosta, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 509 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Y. Ishii, T. Uchida, and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 25, 323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Chen, C.-T. Hsieh, H.-C. Song, Y.-W. Wang, L. Horng, C.-J. Tian, and S.-J. Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 023505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. A (1)

S. Uemura, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. A 10, 2155 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. (1)

S. Uemura, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 12, 1177 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Murakami and H. Naito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2222 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Mazzulla, F. Ciuchi, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, and J. C. Jones, “Bistable nematic liquid crystal device,” U. S. patent 6,249,332(19, June, 2001).

D. Sikharulidze, “Bistable nematic liquid crystal display device,” U. S. patent 7,430,030 (30, September, 2008).

G. Baebero and L. R. Evangelista, An Elementary Course on the Continuum Theory for Nematic Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the bistable HAN LC cell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photos of homogeneous PI surfaces (a) without and (b) with silica nanoparticles observed by scanning electronic microscopy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic representation of the operational principle of a bistable HAN-LCD. (a) Initial HAN state with electric double layer formed around charged-silica nanoparticles. (b) Switching from the HAN state to the homeotropic state by applying a positive pulse. (c) Bistable homeotropic state created due to the existence of an Ei. (d) Drawing the ions by applying a negative pulse, and (a) the ions returning back to the initial state after turning off voltage.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bistable HAN-LCD observed under crossed polarizers. (a) Bright HAN state. (b) Dark homeotropic state.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Switching characteristics of HAN-LCDs (a) without and (b) with the SCPI alignment films.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The electro-optical properties of HAN-LCDs with and without TBAB doped in the LC layers.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ftotal=120d[k(θz)2ε0ΔεE2sin2θ]dz(e11+e33)2E+12wsin2(θs)
ε=2nq2D3/2ε0π1/2LkTf3/2,
ε=2nq2Dε0kTf1,

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