Abstract

In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields, which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small subvolume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. B. Dang, A. C. Maloof, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Opt. Lett. 37, 2247 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Sander, J. Preusser, R. Mhaskar, J. Kitching, L. Trahms, and S. Knappe, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 981 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Cohen-Tannoudji and J. Dupont-Roc, Phys. Rev. A 5, 968 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Happer, Y. Jau, and T. Walker, Optically Pumped Atoms (Wiley, 2010).

2012

2010

H. B. Dang, A. C. Maloof, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and J. Dupont-Roc, Phys. Rev. A 5, 968 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Acosta, V. M.

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allred, J. C.

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appelt, S.

S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baranga, A. Ben-Amar

S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. M.

J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and J. Dupont-Roc, Phys. Rev. A 5, 968 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dang, H. B.

H. B. Dang, A. C. Maloof, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupont-Roc, J.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and J. Dupont-Roc, Phys. Rev. A 5, 968 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. Happer, Y. Jau, and T. Walker, Optically Pumped Atoms (Wiley, 2010).

Jau, Y.

W. Happer, Y. Jau, and T. Walker, Optically Pumped Atoms (Wiley, 2010).

Kauer, M.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Opt. Lett. 37, 2247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

Knappe, S.

Kornack, T. W.

J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ledbetter, M. P.

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyman, R. N.

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maloof, A. C.

H. B. Dang, A. C. Maloof, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mhaskar, R.

Preusser, J.

Romalis, M.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M. V.

H. B. Dang, A. C. Maloof, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sander, T. H.

Savukov, I. M.

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smetana, G. S.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smullin, S. J.

J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trahms, L.

Wakai, R. T.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Opt. Lett. 37, 2247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T.

W. Happer, Y. Jau, and T. Walker, Optically Pumped Atoms (Wiley, 2010).

Walker, T. G.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Opt. Lett. 37, 2247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wyllie, R.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Opt. Lett. 37, 2247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. R.

S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. B. Dang, A. C. Maloof, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Nat. Phys.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. Wyllie, M. Kauer, G. S. Smetana, R. T. Wakai, and T. G. Walker, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and J. Dupont-Roc, Phys. Rev. A 5, 968 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Ledbetter, I. M. Savukov, V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. M. Brown, S. J. Smullin, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151604 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Happer, Y. Jau, and T. Walker, Optically Pumped Atoms (Wiley, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SERF simulation (Eq. 1) with a pump laser having power 0.2 mW, waist wp and detuning 11 GHz. (a) The vector AC-Stark field Ωv(r). The dotted lines show the value of the compensation field. (b) The spatial distribution of the polarized atoms Pz(r). (c) Radially weighted distribution of magnetometer response Px(r)/Ωy. (d) Radially weighted distribution of undesired sensitivity Px(r)/Ωx.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of AM. Atoms polarized by the small but intense pump diffuse out into the remainder of the cell to be detected by the probe in places where their spin-precession is not degraded by the pumping light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurements taken with T=80°C, for different pump laser waists wp. Top: measured average AC-Stark field versus pump laser frequency. Bottom: AM response versus. frequency. At this temperature and vapor cell composition we calculate Γ=7s1, and zd=0.5cm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as Fig. 3, but T=170°C. We calculate Γ=100s1 and zd=0.1cm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P(r⃗)t=D2P(r⃗)+1q(P)[R(r⃗)(z^P(r⃗))+Ω×P(r⃗)+Ωv(r⃗)(z^×P(r⃗))ΓP(r⃗)]
Px(r⃗)Pz(r⃗)Γ(r⃗)Ωy+ΩxΩ˜z(r⃗)Γ(r⃗)2+Ωv2(r⃗).

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