Abstract

We propose a simple approach to broadband generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying vector beams based on compact metamaterials. It consists of two concentric rings in a gold film, where each ring is composed of subwavelength rectangular apertures with gradually varied orientation. The subwavelength rectangular aperture serves as a localized spatial polarizer. We show the generation of different OAM-carrying vector beams with OAM charge number and polarization order varying from 3 to +3 using a 11.2×11.2μm device. The extinction ratio can exceed 20 dB, and the operation bandwidth (1500 nm) can cover from 1000 to 2500 nm (from near-infrared to mid-infrared). The device provides three degrees of freedom (polarization order l, polarization of input beam σ, and initial orientation angle α0) to flexibly generate different OAM-carrying vector beams. We can use a single device to generate two OAM-carrying vector beams with opposite charge sign of OAM by simply controlling the polarization of the input beam. We further study the performance dependence of the designed metamaterials on the offset of the initial orientation angle, length, and width of the rectangular apertures. The obtained results indicate favorable fabrication tolerance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

Q. Zhan, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Birnbaum, K.

Bomzon, Z.

Cai, X.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dultz, W.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, J. A.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Frins, E.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Gu, B.

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

Luat, Y. Li

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marrucci, L.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Berien, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pas’ko, V.

Piccirillo, B.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santamato, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

Schmitzer, H.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shamee, B.

Sorel, M.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stalder, M.

Strain, M. J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. G.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M.

Vuong, T.

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, and S. Dolinar, Opt. Lett. 36, 4269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A. M.

Yu, S.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, L.

Zhu, J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Kang, J. Chen, B. Gu, Y. Li Luat, T. Vuong, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 85, 035801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Berien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic structure of metamaterials for generating OAM-carrying vector beams. (b) Geometric parameters: the radii are ri=(i+6.3)×700nm (i=0, 1) and the orientation angle is α(φ)=lφ+α0 (l=2, α0=0 as an example) with respect to the x axis. The rectangular aperture has a dimension of 600×140nm. (c) Illustration of generating OAM-carrying vector beam (OAM charge number: 2, polarization order: 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spatial distributions of phase, power, and polarization of generated OAM-carrying vector beams [σ=1, left circularly polarized input beam; α0=0, along the direction of e1(φ)].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavelength-dependent (a) ER and (b) purity for generation of OAM-carrying vector beams. Insets in (b) show weight as functions of OAM charge number (left) and polarization order number (right) at 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spatial distributions of phase and polarization of generated OAM-carrying vector beams (σ=1, right circularly polarized input beam).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of ER on (a) initial orientation angle, (b) length, and (c) width of rectangular apertures.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ein=eiσα0eilσφ(e1(φ)iσe2(φ)).
Eout=eilσφe1(φ)=eilσφ[cos(lφ+α0)sin(lφ+α0)],
Eout=iσeilσφe2(φ)=iσeilσφ[sin(lφ+α0)cos(lφ+α0)].

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