Abstract

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) severely degrades images of biological tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. It adds a bias to the local retardation value that can be spatially confined, resulting in regions of seemingly high sample birefringence that are purely artificial. Here, we demonstrate and analyze this effect, both experimentally and with numerical simulations, and show that artifacts can be avoided by limiting the system PMD to less than the system axial resolution. Even then, spatial averaging over a dimension larger than that characteristic of speckle is required to remove a PMD-induced bias of the local retardation values.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2011

2007

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Dal Forno, A. Paradisi, R. Passy, and J. Von der Weid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, B.

Bouma, B. E.

E. Z. Zhang, W. Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, Opt. Express 21, 1163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bressner, J. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chen, L.

Chen, Z. P.

de Boer, J. F.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forno, A. Dal

A. Dal Forno, A. Paradisi, R. Passy, and J. Von der Weid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Halpern, E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Houser, S. L.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

Nadkarni, S. K.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

Paradisi, A.

A. Dal Forno, A. Paradisi, R. Passy, and J. Von der Weid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Passy, R.

A. Dal Forno, A. Paradisi, R. Passy, and J. Von der Weid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C. E.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 431 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmoll, T.

Tearney, G. J.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

Villiger, M. L.

Von der Weid, J.

A. Dal Forno, A. Paradisi, R. Passy, and J. Von der Weid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, P.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhao, Y. H.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Dal Forno, A. Paradisi, R. Passy, and J. Von der Weid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474A (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 431 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Intensity (a), (d), local retardation (b), (e), and enlarged views (c), (f) of a cadaveric human coronary artery, measured with the circulator, (a)–(c), and the fiber coupler, (d)–(f). (g) Local retardation in [deg/μm] averaged in depth over the first 150 μm of the intima along β indicated in (b) and (e).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity (a), (d) and local retardation (b), (e) of the rubber phantom, post-averaged over 20 adjacent B-scans [circulator (a), (b), and fiber coupler (d), (e)]. Scale bars: 500 μm. (c) Average profiles over 20 B-scans and the ROI in (b) and (e) for various wX.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Local retardation expectation and 20% and 80% quantiles indicated by error bars (dz=47μm, wZ=1, φ/dz=0.5deg/μm). (b) Local retardation expectation versus sample birefringence [wX=5, otherwise identical to (a)].

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f1,2(k)=α(k)·JB(k)·JS(k)·JA(k)·ein1,2.
JS(k)=z=0χ(z)[[ei2knoz0],[0ei2knez]]Tdz,
t1,2(z)=f1,2(k)ei2kzdk=α(z)*JB(z)*JS(z)*JA(z)·ein1,2.
s1,2(z+dz/2)=R(z)·s1,2(zdz/2).
τ=τB+MB·τS+MB·MS·τA,

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