Abstract

The x-ray wavefront downstream of a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) was characterized using a two-dimensional grating interferometer. Transverse wavefront slope maps, measured using a raster phase-stepping scan, allowed accurate phase reconstruction of the x-ray beam. Wavefront measurements revealed that the wavefront error is very sensitive to the input beam entering the FZP. A small stack of one-dimensional compound refractive lenses was used to introduce astigmatism in the probing x-ray beam to investigate the contribution of the incoming beam in contrast to the optical aberrations. Experimental data were shown to be consistent with theoretical calculations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 175 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 21333 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 16550 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, K. Sawhney, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Lett. 37, 1622 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, and A. Momose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2025 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, R.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bednarzik, M.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Berujon, S.

Börner, M.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

David, C.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, K. Sawhney, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Lett. 37, 1622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 16550 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 21333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 21333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donath, T.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Färm, E.

Gorelick, S.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Guzenko, V. A.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keplinger, M.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kewish, C. M.

Mantion, A.

Menzel, A.

Metzger, T. H.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mocuta, C.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Momose, A.

Nöhammer, B.

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pape, I.

Pfeiffer, F.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

Rutishauser, S.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, K. Sawhney, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Lett. 37, 1622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 16550 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salome, M.

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K.

Stangl, J.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, Y.

Vila-Comamala, J.

Wang, H.

Weitkamp, T.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yashiro, W.

Zanette, I.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Opt. Express 19, 16550 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, and C. David, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salome, and C. David, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, and C. David, Microelectron. Eng. 101, 12 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout of the experiment used for in situ characterization of an FZP using a 2D GI.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Three images (a), (b), and (c) from the raster scan, corresponding to acquisitions taken at different grating G2 positions. The recorded intensity at the marked point is plotted in (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavefront reconstructions (top) and corresponding wavefront error (bottom) at two incoming beam positions, I (a), (c) and II (b), (d) without 1D CRLs in the beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavefront (top) reconstructions and corresponding wavefront error (bottom) with 1D CRLs at 0° (a), (c) and 90° (b), (d).

Equations (1)

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{ϕx(x,y)Φ(x,y)x=p2λL4φx(x,y)ϕy(x,y)Φ(x,y)y=p2λL4φy(x,y),

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